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Full text of "Collections of the Georgia Historical Society"

Collections 

of the 

Georgia Historical Society 

Vol. XI 

The Papers of James Jackson, 1781- 1798 

Edited by 
LiLLA M. Hawes 




savannah, GEORGIA 
THE GEORGIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

1955 



INTRODUCTION 

James Jackson (1757- 1806), Revolutionary soldier, governor 
of Georgia and United States senator, was one of the most out- 
standing of Georgia's leaders from the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tion until his death in 1806. His papers, therefore, are of great 
importance to the student of this period. 

In order to make as much of this material available as possible, 
the Georgia Historical Society is publishing its collection of 
Jackson's papers, consisting of twenty-four miscellaneous papers, 
1781-1798, and his letterbook, 1788-1793. 

Except for a few quotations from his letters, from his auto- 
biographical sketch, and from his "Notes on Ramsay," these 
papers have not heretofore been published. A few changes for 
clarification have been made in the punctuation. 

We are indebted to E. Merton Coulter, editor of The Georgia 
Historical Quarterly, for his permission to reprint these papers 
which appeared in the issues of March, June, September and 
December, 1953. 

LiLLA M. Hawes, 
Editor 




Section I 

MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS OF JAMES JACKSON, 

1781-1798. 



Jackson to John Twiggs. 

Augusta June 20th 1781 

My dear Colonel A Man who says he is one of your old hands has 
just called on me he brings a story I can make neither head or tail of. 
I wish you would examine him and let me know what dependence you 
place in the Tale. He says Greene and Pickens are both gone he gets 
his information from a deserter of Rawdon [word missing] came to 
the Ponds to day. Altho I cannot believe any [thing] reported should 
it be true [word missing] we have no business here and at any rate 
we ought to know the certainty. If one or two of your trusty unknown 
hands could go towards Ninety Six and return they could bring in- 
formation sufficient and you may assure yourself I shall give you all 
in my power from up the Country. I shall [words missing] early 
Should any thing [ha]ppen after I am gone I could wish you would 
help Captain A[ll]ison off with his people and give him such other 
assistance as he may want. I am Sir sincerely Yr very hble Servt 

If you have any thing to communicate you must inform [word miss- 
ing] daylight or if you think [word missing] for ammunition you had 
better [word missing] Men [words missing] 



Jackson to 

Martins 30th Oct 1781 
De. Gene3{al Captain Grant we found eucamyed on our arrival witti 
about thirty men the whole I apprehend he will be able to raise. "We 
shall get our necessaries complete this Evening & mean to start by 
daylight in the Morning. We have no particular news. A girl from 
Savannah last Wednesday says she saw Brown there but none of his 
Men that there are but few in Town and that they have but two out- 
posts the Governors and Ebenezer. If those at your Camp could have 
notice who intend down with us they will join us this Evening. 
My Compliments to the Family. I am Sir yr very hble Servt 
Mr. Thomas who brings this has some news I would fain believe but 
I cannot bring my mind entirely to it. 

Jackson to Nathan Broivnson 

Augusta Novr. 7th 1781 
Sib Agreeable to your desire I have drawn as brief a narration as 
possible of the small affair of the second instant. 

I marched on the 29th of October from Brigadier Genl Twiggs Camp 
to surprize the Post of British Dragoons on Ogeechee with a detach- 
ment of one hundred and forty Men composed of Colonel McKays and 
Captain Grants voluntier Corps & my Legion. On the second we ar- 
rived in the settlements and about three miles from our Object we 
had the good Fortune to make prisoners of two Dragoons. By their 
information we learnt they had not discovered our rout or the distance 
we were from them but that they had intimation of our March from 
Camp and were reinforced with all the Dragoons amounting to up- 
wards of one hundred and fifty and one hundred Infantry exclusive 
of the Militia of the Country divided into three parties three quarters 
of a Mile from each other. I immediately called a Council of Officers 
when on further information that the Dragoon Horses were chiefly 
turned out it was resolved to attack our intended post. We immediately 
advanced in three Columns towards the Enemy. Captain Carrs one of 
Colonel McKays Companies consisting chiefly of Dragoons with my 
own in the Centre and the rifle men under the command of Colonel 
McKay on their Flanks. Orders were then given for the Dragoons to 
charge through the Yard of their Station and break any Body of Horse 
or Infantry that might be formed & the riflemen to range in their 
Columns on each side the House where they had two fortified Piazzas 
& keep up a smart fire in case of resistance. The Dragoons charged 
through and drove the Enemy who took Shelter in the House as imag- 
ined but unfortunately Captain Grant at the head of one Flank was 
immediately killed by a rifle shot from the house and his Column 




> 'T. 

Jackson's Plan of Action with Campbell Over Ogeecliee 



broke and the other notwithstanding the exertions of the Officers 
took after the runaways in the Swamp which gave the Enemy who 
actually begged for Quarters an opportunity of resuming their arms 
when they poured a very heavy fire from the piazzas with their Car- 
bines and a few rifles. Finding myself under the disagreeable necessity 
of quitting my object or risqueing my being attack'd in my rear after 
rallying my Men I determined to attack the Militia post at Butlers 
before they could have time to recover and use their force to our detri- 
ment in case of a retreat. We instantly drove them killing Eleven and 
taking five or Six prisoners. I then determined to retreat when my 
reconnoitring party returned and informed the British were advancing 
in a collective Body. The most proper position our circumstances would 
permit was made when the Enemy charged and broke our riflemen. 
I immediately advanced with the Dragoons fe a smart little action 
ensued which lasted about twenty minutes when finding the rear of 
my Column broke owing to their superior numbers which nighly sur- 
rounded us and the Enemies Dragoons in Front which we actually 
broke and drove again rallyed and nigh three to one we were obliged 
to retire which the Enemy did immediately after. Our loss except the 
brave Captain Grant is trifling amounting only to six killed seven 
wounded and Captain Bugg with five privates prisoners. The Slaughter 
of the Enemy was great, private accounts from Savannah acknowledg- 
ing from thirty to Forty Dragoons, including two Officers, killed on the 
Spot, with six waggon loads of wounded. The Officers & Men in gen- 
eral behaved with the greatest bravery and altho we failed in our first 
attempt, the loss of so many of their Horse will be severly felt. I am 
Yr Excellencys most Obedt Servt 

Court Martial. 

Camp Advance July 1st 1782 
At a Court Martial held by order of Lt Col Jackson for the tryal of 
such prisoners as may be brought before them 

Capt. James Stallings President 
Capt Lyons Capt. Marbury 

Capt. Alexander Capt. Beckam Members 

Lt. Harvey Capt. Field 

John May, a private in Capt. Beckam Company was brought before 
the court, charged with breaking open Mrs. Rains's smoke House & 
stealing meat. 

The prisoner pleaded Not Guilty & ,says in his defence that he found 
a piece of Beef, but did not know any thing of its being stole therefore 
converted it to his own use. The court is of opinion that as no evi- 
dence appear'd against the prisoner, & as others were known by some 
members of the court to have found some of the meat in the same 



mantn]er, that he is not guilty of the charge, & therefore do acquit 
him. 

Wm Cowan a private in Capt. Beckem isic] CJompany charged with 
stealing two Horses from Miss Fox & Conveying them off. 

The prisoner pleaded Not Guilty. 

James Clancy being call[e]d on as a witness to support the charge 
& being sworn says, that sometime in this Morning he saw two men 
riding out of camp, the one on a bay, the other on a gray horse, that 
he was ordered to pass them by the officer of the day that ne[i]ther 
was the prisoner; but, in a little time after the prisoner came up the 
same road the other two went down afoot. 

Jacob McColough being sworn says, that this Morning he saw the 
prisoner on a gray horse going out of Camp, that he avoided the piquet 
by filing of[f] to the Left & put[t]ing down the fence that he heard 
some person call to the prisoner & desire him to keep the road or come 
that way that the prisoner damn[e]d the person who call[e]d him & 
went on, that in about 15 or 20 Minuets he return [ed] afoot through 
the piquet. 

The prisoner being put on his defence says that he was hunting his 
Mare on a gray Horse of one Jno. Tallys. On being asked why he 
avoided the piquet, he says he had no business that way but says he 
came to the House & left the Horse & went back & return [e]d when 
the said McColough saw him. 

The Court after maturely considering the evidence & the prisoners 
defence are of opinion that his is Guilty but as the crime is of so 
crimanal a nature, the court do not think themselves authorized to 
pass a sentence suteable to the offence, therefore do turn him over to 
the Civil power, or a Genl Court Martial. 

Soloman Peters of Capt. Lyons Company charged with attempting 
to desert to the Enemy. 

The prisoner pleaded Not Guilty. 

No evidence appearing the Court orders the prisoner remand [ed] 
for further tryal. 

Charity Bowes brought before the court Charged with attempting 
to seduce Soloman Peters to desert to the Enemy. 

The prisoner pleaded Not Guilty. 

No Evidence appearing the Court remand [ed] the prisoner for fur- 
ther Tryal. Jas. Stallings president 

John Wereat to Jackson. 

Augusta 27th. Feby. 1782 
Deab Sib, I was favor'd with your obliging Letter of the 19th. by the 
return of the Governor for which I thank you. I am particularly 
obliged to you for securing the Phaeton and your kind intention of 



Bending it up; Mr. Stirk talks of coming up soon, probably he naay 
bring it. 

I can readily conceive the care and watchfulness that you must 
necessarily have in being advanced in the face of the Enemy. I wish 
I had any thing good to send you to soften the hardship of War, but 
our Enemies have put it out of my power. I hope to be able to furnish 
you with a good pudding by and by as I have a fair-prospect. 

We look up to you for News and information, this is a barren place 
and you can expect nothing in that way from hence. I have heard 
indeed that the French Troops are on their March Southwardly, but 
of this I suppose you are regularly informed, and of every thing that 
is doing in the busy World. 

The Governor mentioned an intention of calling the Assembly at 
Ebenezer, in that case I shall have the pleasure of seeing you soon, 
in the mean time our best wishes are with you. Nancy has been very 
ill which is the reason you have not your Stockings by this opportun- 
ity, she is now getting better and they shall be sent you by the next 
that offers. Inclosed are three Letters which I beg you'll forward, 
I shou'd have sent them before but I understood Mr. Gibbons was gone 
to the Northward. I am truly. Dear Jackson Your friend and humle. 
Servt 

John Wereat to Jackson. 

Augusta. 8th. April 1782 
Deae Sib, On my return from Head Quarters I had the pleasure to 
find your favor of the 15th Ult. and shall always be glad when oppor- 
tunity and a little respite from business of greater consequence per- 
mits to hear from you. 

In my late perambulation I hoped to have had the pleasure of a little 
chat with you and also of seeing the General and some other friends, 
but could not stay 'till your return from the Lines. 

I wish you an ample supply of Old Jamaica, as I expect a share of 
it in the brilliancy of the Epistle you give me reason to believe will 
fall to my lot in consequence of its arrival at your Camp. 

Thank you my Dear Sir for the trouble you have been at about my 
old Carriage. It was not well done to cut out the Lining but it cannot 
be helped. This however is trifling when compared with the conduct 
of some people from whom a different behavior is expected, of which 
you will be made acquainted when we meet. What think you of some 
to whom I lent Money five years ago, on applying to them in a case 
of real necessity denying the Debt and whose Notes I have since 
found? 

I much fear that what the Enemy say of the Bart, in their paper 
is but too true. I am confidently of opinion with you that as long as 
our affairs are in a promising way we shall find many fair-weather 
friends, who upon a reverse of fortune would make no scruple to brace 

5 



about and shift their course again. These are detestable Characters and 
ought to be despised. 

You are not singular in your opinion about the Enemys intentions 
of abandoning Savannah; it was a prevailing and a very General 
opinion at Head Quarters when I was there that they were about 
leaving Charles Town, and appearances seemed to indicate as much, 
as far as I was capable of judging. An Officer of Rank in the British 
Army (Col. Small) and some others (of the Police I think) had been 
out, conferring with Mr. Ferguson, Rutledge and some more of our 
friends, endeavoring to make terms for their adherents, and were advo- 
cates for humanity and moderation which they neither plead nor 
practised while they had the Country and its best Citizens in their 
power. Another piece of information I learnt in Genl. St. Clair's family 
was, that the Enemy had taken the Artillery from off their Lines. 

I sincerely wish you a little respite from the fatigue and vigilance 
that you must be inseperable from your present situation, as I want 
to attack some people in the way of your Civil profession. Such Charac- 
ters as I mentioned above, and those who have adhered to our Ene- 
mies may with great propriety and justice be called upon to pay what 
they owe, which will now be useful; but from the Specimen I gave you 
of the former and your own observation of the latter, you will be of 
opinion with me that justice is not to be expected but by coercive 
measures, which I wish you to administer. 

I found two Letters from my old friend Genl. Mcintosh on my re- 
turn from Carolina, which I wish you could see; he desires to be re- 
member'd to you, but gives no news indeed 'tis not the time of the 
Year to expect it from thence. The Commissary Genl. of Prisoners was 
return'd to Philadelphia without effecting the exchange; Sir H. Clin- 
ton's insisting on Ld. Cornwallis being first exchanged broke off the 
Negotiation, but Col. Skinner had gone again to N. York the 9th. 
Decemr. to make another attempt. 

The time is approaching I hope when your Sword may be turned 
into Goose Quills and the Scabbard into parchment; may you use it 
with as much reputation after its transmutation as you have done 
before; it may be usefully employed in support of the rights of your 
Country in either shape, and I have no doubt but it will. You may 
be assured I feel a very sensible pleasure in the esteem and confidence 
of this Country which you deservedly possess, as I was concerned in 
bringing you to it. 

I hope you got a line I wrote you from Ebenezer and a pair [of] 
Stockings; when you want more let me know. Mrs. W. and Nancy send 
you a great many good wishes. Take care of your Scalp. Adieu. I am. 
Yours sincerely 



Copy o1 a General Order in hand of Jackson.^ 

Head Quarter [s] Camp Gibbons's July 10 1782 
G O 

As the Enemy may be expected daily to evacuate the Town. The 
Troops will take care to be provided with a clean shift of linen and 
to make themselves as respectable as possible for the occasion. The 
Officers are particularly called on to attend to this order and see it 
executed in their respective Corps. No followers of the Army are to be 
permitted to enter the Town until the Main body has marched in. 

Lt. Col. Jackson in consideration of his severe and fatiguing service 
in the advance is to receive the keys of Savannah & is allowed to enter 
at the Western Gate taking possession thereof and keeping a patrole 
in town to apprehend stragglers who may steal in with the hopes of 
plunder. Marauders may assure themselves of the most severe & exem- 
plary punishment. 

Extract from Minutes of the House of Assembly. 

House of Assembly 30th. July 1782 
Whereas Lieutenant Colo. Jackson hath rendered many great and 
usefull Services to his Country, for which he is entitled to the notice 
and Attachment of the Legislature 

Be it therefore Resolved that the House which heretofore belonged 
to Mr Tattnall in Savannah be granted to Colo. Jackson as a Mark of 
the sense entertained by the Legislature of his merits. 

Extracts from the Minutes 
(Signed) John Wilkinson C.G.A. 

George Handley to Jackson. 

Auga. Sepr. 2d 1785 
Dear Sir Inclosed I have the honor to transmitt you an Order of 
Council of the 31st Ulto. wherein you are appointed one of the Commrs. 
to attend the Continental Commissioners at a Treaty to be held at 
Galphinton with the Creek Indians on the third monday, instant. 

By an Order of Council of the same day you will see in the Gazette 
that we adjourn from hence the 12th. of Octo. to meet in Savh. the 
26th. of the same month; to the no small satisfaction of yr. hum. Servt. 
who is heartily tired of this place. We have nothing particularly new 
here, as dull as the devil, except, McKay and Jarvis shot a poor man a 
few days ago, who is since dead. Warrants are issued to apprehend them. 

I beg my respectfull compliments to Mrs. Jackson and am Dr. Jack- 
son, very respectfully. Your Obedt. Servt. 



3. Bears Note : "No. 14. Copy Genl. Wayne's order Joly 10th 1802 [1782]' 

7 



Jackson to Caleb SwannA 

New York May 4Ui 1790 
Sm I can give the Secry of War no positive Information of the num- 
bers of the Militia in actual service from 1775 to 1782. The Statement 
below as near as I can guess may be supposed the amount. 

For the year 1775 I believe that the State of Georgia had one thousand 
Militia constantly in Service and which number were continued until 
the spring of 1776. I am led to this belief from the parties I know of 
my own knowledge to have been called out, the frontier situation of 
Georgia the struggle with our internal Enemies the defence of the 
Country against the Florida Banditti & the expedition of Savannah un- 
der Commodore Barclay. 

For the years 1776 & 1777 the Militia in actual service may be com- 
puted at 750 exclusive of the two Battalions of Minute Men which were 
in service untill July 1778 of 750 each and a State regiment of Horse 
supposed 250 with three additional troops of 40 Men each under the 
command of a Major. 

In the year 1778 exclusive of the State Corps, there were two thou- 
sand Militia in actual service for nearly six months. 

In 1779, 1780, 1781 & 1782 the Militia may be computed at 750 con- 
stantly in service for the whole period; as the State during this time 
was totally ravaged by the enemy & the Citizens of Georgia never quit 
the Field altho compelled to abandon not only their homes but fre- 
quently their State. This is likewise exclusive of the Georgia Legion 
raised in 1781 by order of Genl. Greene. I am &c. 

Notes on Ramsay. (Ca. 1790)5 
page 4 
begged Genl. Howe to permit two field pieces to be sent to Brewtons. 
It is certain that he made a laugh of the danger & owing to his confi- 
dence for he would not retreat when he can have done it a fine army 
was lost & many families beggared. 

Had a piece of Artillery been sent to the causeway the British would 



4. Bears note in Jackson' hand : "Copy of a Letter written the Secry of War." 

5. David Ramsay, The History of the Revolution of South-Carolina, . . . 
(Trenton. 1785). II. This manuscript, a copy of the origdnal, is in the hand of 
William Bacon Stevens. Unfortunately the first four pages of this copy, cover- 
ing pages 1-3 of Ramsay, are lost. Some indication of the content of pages 2-3 
is in T. U. P. Charlton's The Life of Major General James Jackson (Augusta, 
Ga., 1809; reprint, 1897), 12. The history of this manuscript has been told by 
Leonard L. Mackall in his article, "Edward Langworthy and the First Attempt 
to Write a Separate History of (Georgia . . ." in the Georgia Historical Quar- 
terly, VII (March, 1923), 1-17. Jackson's letter to Lang^vorthy. January 28, 
178."), quoted in Mr. Mackall's article, implies that the original notes were en- 
tered in a copy of Ramsay. This does not seem possible, however, as some of 
the notes are too voluminous for such narrow margins. It should be observed 
that some of the notes do not apply to the content of the pages fhoy are sup- 
posed to annotate. The original manuscript is apparently lost, though it, or 
a copy, was in the archives of the state Executive Department in 182.'). accord- 
ing to a list of documents of "intrinsic interest" made that year by Joseph V. 
Bevan (Bevan Papers in the Georgia Historical Society). 

8 



have been severely handled & in all probability prevented landing at 
that time & which would have afforded Genl. Lincoln an opportunity 
of forming a junction & of saving the Western Inhabitants. 

Page 5 

It is a pity the intelligence of the militia was not attended to — had 
it, a retreat at leisure would no doubt have been executed & the troops 
been able to look the enemy in the face in Georgia. Walton deserved 
great credit on this occasion & notwithstanding Howe['s] acquittal 
Walton's charge was well grounded. The time of Howe's trial seems 
to have been unfortunate. It was after the attack had been made on 
General Mcintosh & the officers of the army were much irritated 
against Col. Walton on the account he having been governor of the 
State at the time the censure was passed on that officer. The officers 
at the time the enemy landing particularly Genl. Elbert & Capt. Beal, 
Capt. Stallings, Col. John Jones who was repeatedly wounded. Major 
Lindsay, Col. George Walton, the Lewis family of Burke County the 
oldest brother of which is now Col. Lewis, Major Boquin, Captain 
John Lyons, Col. Dunn, the famous Robert Sallet who like Carr had 
killed upward of one hundred of the enemy with his own hand, Cols. 
McNeil & Bugg, Capt. Sherwood Bugg, Capt. Alexander (now Col. Alex- 
ander), Capt. Hugh McGee, Capt. Barton. 

Page 6 

The situation in which the State of Georgia now was gave an open- 
ing for several military characters to shew themselves though little 
known to the world deserve as much as other officers of the United 
States. Foremost among these are the Generals Twiggs & Clarke, whose 
exertions were equal to any, Cols. Ben & Wm. Few, Col. Candler, Col. 
Williamson, Major Cunningham, Capt., afterwards Col. Saml. Ham- 
mond of the Carolina State, Capt. now Col. Jared Irwin, Capt. Irwin the 
Colonel's brother. Major Patrick Carr* 

Page 9 

In the spring of 1779 the British pushed forward a party to the 
County of Burke under Col. Brown to join Col. Thomas who com- 
manded the militia of the county who had sided with the British. 
They gathered at Burkes gaol. The two Cols. Few who were very active 
on the American side learning of the collection got a party of men 
together & made a forced march being joined by Col. Twiggs & some 
men from Burke attacked Brown & totally defeated him killing wound- 
ing & taking prisoners all of his party. 



•This was the famous Paddy Carr the terror of the British adherents who had 
in action during the revolution liilled upwards of one hundred with his own 
hand. On being one day praised for his soldierly conduct he cooly replied he 
should have been a good soldier but for his heart which was too tender & com- 
passionate. [Jackson's note.l 

9 



Page 10 

Not long after this action at Burkes gaol a large party of Tories 
again collected under Major Harry commonly known by the name of 
Hall Sharp, who being joined by two other Majors from South Caro- 
lina formed a considerable Corps & greatly distressed the Inhabitants. 
Col. Twiggs with Capt. Joshua Inman attacked them & wholly defeated 
them. And what is well worthy of remark here is that Capt. Inman 
killed all three of the British Majors with his own hand. Great slaugh- 
ter was otherwise made & the Tories never rose in any considerable 
body in Georgia afterwards. Indeed the vigilance of Twiggs, Few & 
Clarke was such, as to render it impracticable whilst the Americans 
had possession. 

Page 11 

It may appear like the partiality & prejudice complained of to say 
it is a pity the President nor Legislature acted up to the animated 
speech & answer; the one received the protection of the enemy, the 
other as the people at large totally neglected the American standard 
after the loss of their Capital. 

Page 13 

The British were only transient at Augusta & did not establish a 
post there till nigh two years after this date. 

Page 15 
Dooly of Georgia & Pickens of So. Carolina had equal command here 
& ought to have received equal credit. At any rate the partiality of 
this account is great for the brave Clarke of Georgia who did the 
business is not mentioned. Pickens is a great Character but ought not 
to have the merit justly due to others. It is acknowledged that Clarke 
with above fifty Georgians gained that action by rushing through a 
Creek & gaining the opposite hill in spite of numbers & advantages. 

Page 16 
A very pretty action done by Cols. Mcintosh & Twiggs of Georgia 
& Col. Le Roi Hamond of So. Carolina is here neglected. They marched 
from Augusta, got below the British lines & surprised the posts of 
Herberts, killed & took prisoners a considerable number of British 
Regulars & militia & returned passing the rear of their line of march 
after them safe to Augusta. 

Page 17 
A pretty manouvre practiced by Lt. Hawkins afterwards adjutant 
to Jackson's legion was performed whilst the British were in the 
vicinity of Augusta. Genl. Elbert sent Hawkins singly to reconnoitre 
the enemy. Hawkins at the bean [McBean] swamp fell in with three 
noted Tories who were bound to the British camp & was discovered 

10 



by them so near as to preclude a possibility of escape. Hawkins there- 
fore resolutely advanced & demanded who they were. They answered 
him they were going to join Col. Daniel McGirt the famous plunder- 
ing partizan in British pay. Hawkins, having on an old British uni- 
form coat, told them he believed they lied, that they were Rebels, that 
his party was near & he would put them to death, that he was McGirt 
himself. They again interceded & assured him of their zeal for the 
British cause. Having told them if what they said was true to ground 
their rifles & hold up their hands, the Presbyterian mode of attesting 
& swearing to it; this they did grounding their rifles, when he ad- 
vanced, cocked his pistols & ordered them [to] march on, took up their 
rifles & carried them & arms safe to the General. This officer from 
this & other actions of a similar nature was afterwards called Mad 
Hawkins. 

Page 19 
It has been said & by Carolinians this Corps so particularly named, 
did not act up to the expectations formed of it. Some of the officers 
did every duty that could be required of them. But the majority it is 
said in the moment of adversity could not stand the test. But volun- 
tarily surrendered after the fall of Charleston. 

Page 20 

"Talifenny [Tulifinny] bridge" — A camp was only continued here 
for one night — quere, if it could be called a permanent post to prevent 
incursions in Georgia. 

Page 21 

Genl. Lincoln crossed Savannah River 40 miles below Augusta 
again into South Carolina, "being in danger." A great mistake. Doct 
Ramsay could not have known the Southern country or its militia or 
those informing him were ignorant. The Militia of Georgia had fre- 
quently been in danger & behaved equal to regulars, particularly in the 
attack of Savannah by Commodore Barclay & Major Grant in 1776 when 
the vessels, as Dr. Ramsay says in his former vol. by Col. Bull were 
destroyed by Commodore Bowen & the British totally beat off. 

The British force under Barclay arrived some time about the month 
of March & came as far as five fathom hole where they lay some time 
& sounded the river To the great surprise of the Georgians who had 
never known the depths of water in the back Savannah river. The 
British pushed up several heavy armed vessels some of which went 
round Hutchinson's Island & came down the main Savannah river 
above the town, whilst the land forces under Maitland & Grant were 
marched across that Island & placed on board the Merchant vessels 
which were hauled to that side the river. Fortunately for the town the 
armed vessels grounded on a bank opposite Jonathan Bryans' Esqr & 
from which plantation they were much annoyed by a party of Rifle- 

11 



men under Col Jos. Habersham & might have been taken possession 
of if he had had boats to have boarded them, the men being all driven 
below by the Col's, fire. In the mean time Genl. Mcintosh who com- 
manded sent Col. afterwards Genl. Scriven who was afterwards slain 
as related in this column to demand the return of a flag carried by 
Col. Roberts & Major Demere. Col. Scriven was ordered to keep off 
& the flag was denied (said to be Col. Baker). Then Col. Scriven fired 
& received a volley from the British which almost sunk his Boat al- 
though but one was wounded. With difficulty the Boat reached the 
shore from the number of balls which had gone through her. A party 
of nine volunteers were then procured under Major now Commodore 
Bowen to board the fleet & set it on fire. This was effected a ship 
in flames set adrift & she grounded. The second a Schooner took effect 
& the British soldiers were glad to get ashore, many with the loss of 
their arms & most all of them with their arms & cloths spoilt in the 
scrambling through this muddy Marsh. Among the volunteers were 
Mr J. Morel, Mr Thomas Hamilton, Mr Wm. Bryan senr. & Mr Jackson 
afterwards Col. Jackson, with Lieut, [blank] of the first Georgia Regi- 
ment. 

Page 26 
"by his countrymen" — The redoubt Col. Harris commanded with the 
light Troops at the same time Major Huger was killed was fired into 
from every direction & several of his officers & men wounded. 

Page 28 
"by Genl. Provost" [Prevost] & conducted by a Mr Fenwick a native 
of Carolina. 

Page 30 
"wounded in saflety [safety]" — The remains of the Georgia Brigade 
Major Handly were attached to Col. Malmedy & were the only part 
of the Troops which carried the works but were compelled to retire. 

Page 32 
The British assuredly carried for So. Carolina a large number of 
negroes who were shipped from Georgia & East Florida as well as a 
quantity of Plate. Georgia suffered as much & instead of being en- 
riched as from a transient view of this passage appears to be the case, 
from the spoils of So. Carolina her old & staple inhabitants had been 
from their limits with the loss of every article of property they pos- 
Bessed but a few slaves which they were generally compelled to part 
with in Carolina for the necessaries of life. 

Page 33 
About the month of June Genl. Twiggs then Col. Twiggs marched 
with Col. Baker from Augusta to Medway. Baker took several prisoners, 
& among the Continental prisoners to the British at Sunbury which 

12 



place he entered in triumph. Twiggs was attacked at Butler's with 
no more than 30 men by Capt. Mailer of the 6th. Regt. with 60 gren- 
adiers under his command. The Capt. was killed & every other officer 
& private Soldier was killed or made prisoners. This gallant action 
although one of the prettiest in America has never been noticed. If 
it had been done by any but a Georgian it would have received its de- 
served applause. The Grenadiers were picked out of a whole Regt. for 
the business. 

Page 37 

"the communication"— The Docts. intelligence from So. Carolina on 
this affair. 

Page 40 
The Charleston Militia are acknowledged to have behaved well, but 
is not the partiality here great? Three hundred & fifty were said to 
be in the hottest of the fire & only six wounded & Capt. Shepherd killed 
when the Continentals lost out of six hundred near one half & the 
french one sixth of the whole. No Georgian is mentioned here though 
it is known a great portion of the militia belonged to that State & more 
than the Charleston militia lost. Several fell that morning of the 
Georgians. 

Page 41 

Genl. Mcintosh a Georgia officer was the second in Command of 
the Augusta troops & behaved very gallantly. One of his aids Mr John 
Jones of Sunbury was killed as also Mr Charles Price, both of them 
highly lamented, & the latter a man of eminent ability. This loss indeed 
has been severely felt by Georgia; he was one of the best lawyers per- 
haps in the United States & possessed as good a heart as he did a clear 
head & sound judgment. Lieutt. Robert Carnibe Baillie another Geor- 
gian although an officer in the third So. Carolina Regiment lost his 
life in this storm, a young man of most undaunted bravery. 

Mr Jones & Lieutt. Baillie both seemed conscious of their fate & 
staggered many of their friends with respect to the doctrine of fore- 
sight & forebodings; they both took an affectionate leave of all their 
friends the evening before the storm & told them they should be killed 
but this foreboding made no difference in their conduct; they went 
resolutely to action & Baillie fell at the head of the third So. Carolina 
Regt. Jones was killed by a four pound ball near the Abbatis. Lieut. 
Edward Lloyd another Georgian lost his right arm by a cannon shot 
& bore the loss with philosophic calmness. An officer by the name of 
Stedman had (Page 44) that morning not acted the soldier. Lieut. Lloyd 
gallantly observed to some friends near him whilst his shattered arm 
was being dressed that as bad a prospect as it presented to so young 
a man he would not change situations with Stedman. This country 
since peace presented this officer with a House & lot in Savannah in 
consideration of his loss & behaviour. Major John Lucas another of 

13 



Genl. Mcintosh's aids behaved bravely on this occasion & was honored 
by G€nl. Lincoln after the storm with the flag to agree to some terms 
for burying the dead & receiving & exchanging the wounded. The offi- 
cers of Georgia who had not commands formed into a volunteer Corps 
under Col. Marbury & led the advance of one of the columns under 
(Jenl. Huger. 

Page 68 
If a History of Georiga would ever be written the early exertions 
of the state by water would not be forgotten nor the gallant behaviour 
of Col. Joe Habersham, nor Commodore Bowen be ever forgotten. The 
powder which was used by the Americans at Bunker's Hill was cap- 
tured in a ship commanded by Capt. Maitland by these officers in the 
first Privateer which any of the States fitted out in the course of the 
revolution. The exertions of the State afterwards was greater than, 
could be expected under the directions of the Board of Commissioners 
of Trade of which John Wereat, Thos. Stone &c. 

Page 70 

A State Sloop under command of Capt. Jos Pray was fitted out & 
made several successful voyages to the West Indies & by which means 
the Troops were supplied with clothing & necessaries, few or no arti- 
cles being sent to the Southward by Congress. Capt. Spence out of 
Sunbury in a Privateer called the Bullahoe made a number of suc- 
cessful cruises & fought some smart actions. The gallies under Comdr 
Bowen had been frequently engaged & in the year 1777 the Hutchen- 
brock [Hinchinbroke] armed ship was captured by two of them under 
command of Capt. Hardy & a party of lan[d] force[s] under Genl. 
Elbert. 

Page 78 

Proper for comments on the Greorgia finances. 

Page 9 5 

Georgia Scale of depreciation should come in here. 

Page 98 
In the fall of 1779 the Legislature not having convened to make 
choice of a Governor in the room of Mr John Houstoun whose time 
had expired, the government was conducted by a committee under the 
presidency of John Wereat Esqr but a kind of Convention or Legis- 
lature afterwards met & chose the Hon. Walton Governor who was 
exchanged about the raising of the Siege of Savannah. This difference 
of opinion created great disputes & parties between the Governor & 
Committee who had been supported by Genl. Mcintosh & the Military 
commander & criminating letters it is said were written by govern- 
ment to Congress against that officer who was shortly after a prisoner 
at Haddrels point, having been captured in Charleston where he com- 

14 



manded the Charleston militia. This was unfortunate as unanimity 
was never more requisite that at this period. Col. Parker of the Georgia 
line was at this time stationed at Augusta but was shortly ordered 
to Charlestown; whilst at Augusta one of his detached parties in Burke 
came up with the celebrated McGirt & wounded him, totally defeating 
his whole party & killing or taking prisoners several of them. Bland's 
Dragoons under Major, afterwards Col. Jameison were highly con- 
spicuous. Shortly after Col. Parker leaving the command at Augusta 
(Jenl. Williamson of So. Carolina took command of that place & an 
expedition was planned against the lower parts of the State to harrass 
the enemy which was executed by Cols. Twiggs of Georgia & Pickens 
of So. Carolina who captured many prisoners & a number of negroes 
which they returned safe to Augusta. 

Page 111 

Had Genl, Williamson who commanded Ninety Six district done his 
duty the back parts of So. Carolina would never have generally sub- 
mitted nor would that state have lost the assistance of hundreds she 
did lose had that General not been so exceedingly base as to add de- 
ception to his followers to his treasons to the public & thereby give 
up to Mr Paris an infamous plunderer a number of brave characters of 
States. 

Page 112, 113 

Williamson endeavoured to persuade the Governor & council to stand 
their ground at Augusta no doubt to betray them to the British, he 
concealed his intelligence respecting the fall of Charleston & as well 
from his future conduct as his employment of such people about him 
as he did, there can be little doubt of his having made a bargain with 
Sir Henry Clinton at this very time. The person he used as an express 
to Charleston was a man well known to be in the British interests 
Martin Weatherford & who was repeatedly backwards & forwards in 
Savannah. His secretary Malcomb Brown was also known to be dis- 
affected to America. Mr R. Howley however who was now Governor 
knowing himself to be no favorite with the British & therefore to have 
nothing to expect if taken but indignant conduct on their side, guided 
either by his fears or his desire to take his seat in Congress which 
the State forseeing the storm had permitted him to do, prudently as 
it turned out determined on evacuating the State which was done 
about a week after the fall of Charleston & very narrowly escaped 
a detachment sent expressly after him by Lord Cornwallis. The conti- 
nental & state officers of Georgia retreated with him & formed his 
guard for the situation of the militia was such that those who (Page 
116, 117) inclined going immediately off under Col. Twiggs determined 
on carrying what little matter they could with them in a body which 
they did some short time after & those under Col. Clarke determined 

15 



by the advice of Williamson to stand their ground in Wilkes County 
as the President of the council the Hon. Stevens [Stephen] Heard 
& a sufficient number to form a board likewise did, but finding them- 
selves deceived related by Williamson they at last retreated. President 
Heard the Hon Myrick Davies, Col. Downs & some others of the Coun- 
cil animated the militia with their presence underwent every diffi- 
culty with the troops & were in most of the severe actions which the 
Georgia Militia were engaged in. 

Page 118, 119 

So much was the money of the U. States depreciated at the [time] 
of Governor Howly's retreat that it actually cost the state half a mil- 
lion of dollars to effect it & to defray the Government expenses to 
Philadelphia. 

Page 123 

"They gloried" — They assuredly deserved & have deservedly received 
the thanks of every American in addition to admiration of their con- 
duct. 

Page 126, 127 

Col Clarke with the Georgians to the amt. of 300 assembled under 
his command in Wilkes county expecting to be succoured by the So 
Carolinians. Their feelings hearing the treasons of Williamson who 
had persuaded them to remain are no more to be described than the 
situation they were in, surrounded by enemies on every quarter & 
without a farthing for support & large families to provide for. The love 
of liberty & their Commander overcame every difficulty, they aban- 
doned their property & families to the merciless British & Savages & 
after many smart skirmishes & encountering surprising hardships es- 
tablished themselves in the vicinity of Berwick's Iron Works where 
they first roused the military spirit in South Carolina when that state 
was totally deserted by its own citizens. It is surprising that action 
should have been passed over. Majors Furguson & Dunlap attacked 
Clark with about an equal number of Dragoons with their pieces. 
Clark had two cuts on his head from Dunlap. 

Pages 130 & 131 
No Georgian would wish to take from Sumpter or Pickens but at 
the same time or indeed before either of them had taken the field 
Clarke had made his way through that traitor Williamson's settlement 
who had induced him to stay under an idea of mutual protection until 
the British had possession of Ninety Six district after fighting his way 
through he established himself in the vicinity of Berwick's iron works 
where he first checked the celebrated partizan Furguson. See note 
page 127. The action of the Iron works was early in July. 



16 



Page 135 
This July 12th was the "first advantage" except the Iron Works. 

Page 137 
"On the eighteenth" — This acct. is likewise injuring the character 
of the brave Clarke, who was appointed to the command on that day 
by Williams & Col. Shelby a brave officer from over the mountains. 
The Georgians & Mountain-men were here highly conspicuous. The 
British were here first turned & closely pursued for two miles by Capt. 
Shedrac Inman who lost his life after the action was gained, from 
one of the prisoners. 

Page 139 
"Lead [Lord] Nairne" — This business was carried into execution by 
Mr Josiah Powell of Georgia. 

Page 175 
"We have seen Sumpter." See note page 126, 127. 

Page 178 
"This was the only" — Clarke & McKay's Georgians excepted. 

Page 179 
"Early in Sept. 1780" — Clarkes party had fought two actions before 
this & therefore were not not collected "to flee out of the country." He 
did not fly, nor was he beat by Brown. Cruger's detachment from 
Ninety Six relieved Brown & that only prevented the Garrison from 
being made prisoners. Clarke leisurely retreated after defeating Brown 
in two or three actions. 

Page 182 
"Servier [Sevier] & Williams" — & Baker of Georgia who deserved as 
much. Capt. Ball of Georgia lost his life at the head of one of the 
charges. 

Page 185 
"Ninety Six & Augusta" — Brown's barbarity at Augusta was inhuman 
or rather savage; respectable characters were given up after Clarke's 
defeat to the Indians who tortured them & burnt them alive. 

Page 189 
"and the thanks of Congress" — Genl. Sumpter commanded at the be- 
ginning of the action but was wounded so severely as to be compelled 
to retreat from the field, notice of which was sent to Major Jackson 
for the oldest Georgian officer to take command when it devolved on 
Col. Twiggs, who commanded the remainder of the action & completed 
the victory. The Georgians are here not mentioned nor their com- 
mander though the Genl. himself previous to his retiring was com- 
pelled to request the Georgians to advance or the action would be lost. 
Col. Lisle of Carolina & Cols Clarke & Candler of Georgia turned the 

17 



British flanks & the Regiment of Wilkes county Georgia performed 
wonders in front, (Jenl. Sumpter deserves every credit not only from 
So. Carolina but from the union but Twiggs certainly was entitled to 
his share of this day's glory, which was great. Genl. Sumpter's brigade 
Major had just compared returns with the brigade Major (Jackson) 
of the Georgians & every man present officers & privates were but 420 
whilst the British force altogether was 700 — 400 Horse & 300 Infantry 
& notwithstanding what Tarleton has declared the greater part en- 
gaged & were all regulars, the Americans all militia; the British made 
upwards of twenty charges with their Dragoons & were repeatedly re- 
pulsed. Instances were that day known of the Wilkes County Riflemen 
of the same man killing a Dragoon in front of him then falling flat 
& loading his rifle & killing another Dragoon who had charged him 
in his rear. Tarleton wrote a note to Cornwallis which was a long time 
in possession of Major Jackson, where he mentioned to his Lordship 
that he had come up with & cut to pieces the rebel rear-guard. This 
rear-guard was in fact a small reconnoitring party under Capt. Patrick 
Carr who had taken three Tories & two Mill Boys with their meal 
bags prisoners. On sight of the British Carr as he was ordered came 
off to make a report & the British taking it for granted as a rear guard, 
cut those harmless devils of their own in their own expressions to 
pieces. 

Col. Twiggs entercepted Tarleton's express. 

Page 196 & 197 
As to the ground at Blackstocks, Col. Twiggs was on it for two 
hours after the action was over & detached Major Jackson after the 
British who brought off upwards of 30 Horses. 

Page 189 [Should be 198] 

Tarleton in his campaigns says, there was upwards of 150 Americans 
killed in this engagement. Genl. Sumpter & two men were wounded 
& one American killed whose name was Rogers of Wilkes County Geor- 
gia. 

Page 196, 197 

Between the times of the actions of Blackstocks & Tarletons defeat 
Col. Clarke marched to Long Cane near Savannah River & raised a 
number of inhabitants, likewise took prisoners Genl. Williamson & 
some others who had taken paroles under the British. His design was 
to raise all that part of So Carolina & the back Country of Georgia. 
There would have been no doubt of succeeding had he sent William- 
son off a prisoner with the others if they had not declared themselves. 
This was strongly advised in a council of officers by several officers 
but overruled, the consequence was that Williamson gave the British 
intelligence of the numbers & a detachment marched from Ninety Six 
of 200 British & 500 Tories. The Tories were attacked by Clarke & 

18 



driven but the British advanced with fixed bayonets & Clarke's detach- 
ment consisting of 100 was routed. Clarke himself & Major Lindsay 
were wounded. Major Lindsay was most barbarously treated after he 
surrendered & had his hand chopped off & his body dreadfully mangled. 

Page 197 

"The whole of the Southern Militia" — Quere, whether the author 
means by southern militia all So. Carolinians. The Wilkes regiment 
of Georgia was there & the first opposed to the enemy though neither 
the regiment or its officers are mentioned, nor even Major Cunning- 
ham who commanded the Georgia detachment nor Major Jackson who 
was aid to Genl. Pickens & Brigade Major to all the militia present, 
& who received the thanks of Genl. Morgan on the ground for his con- 
duct & who introduced Major McArthur, the commander of the British 
infantry, whom he had personally taken to Genl. Morgan. 

Page 206 

"before the rain" — The Prisoners crossed above under conduct of 
Picken's Brigade. 

Page 208 

Several of the Georgia line having no command served as volunteers 
through the campaign of 1781 with the Georgia militia & underwent 
every hardship with them, many of them almost naked; among those 
were Col. John Mcintosh who was an aid sometime to Genl. Sumpter, 
Lieuts. Tennil, Allison, Howe, Hillary, Morrison & Perry, & the state 
made an additional compensation to those gallant officers for this 
extra duty & their presence in action was very serviceable. 

Page 227 
"to co-operate with Genl. Marion" — Genl. Pickens had no hand in 
preventing supplies going to Augusta by Col. Jas. Baker as related 
page 238 & Col. Brown perfectly invested by Georgians alone long be- 
fore Mr Pickens or Mr Lee appeared, full six weeks. Indeed the Geor- 
gians were almost fatigued & had been almost induced to quit the 
enterprize. Scarce a day passed without bloodshed & the Americans 
were in want of almost every necessary of life they were once on the 
eve of breaking up the Camp at S — s & returning different routes with 
their families & property over the mountains whilst some advised the 
Capt. of Fort Galphin & to take the plunder off. Such diversity of 
opinion tired out Col. Baker who relinquished as did Major Stirk any 
command. Col. Jackson fortunately crossed Savannah (Page 230) river 
at this critical moment after raising Col. Le Roy Hammond's Regi- 
ment & was informed of the unfortunate situation of the camp. He re- 
quested the officers to remain for that night & to permit him to speak 
to the men in the morning; this was consented to. The Col. had been 
used to speak on horseback on several occasions to the Georgia Militia 

19 



who were very much attached to him & he always found it answer [ed] 
the best purposes. In the morning he took this method, pointed out to 
them the miseries they had endured, the cruelties practised on their 
innocent families by Brown & Grierson, addressed those who had lately 
joined, if they wished to see their families in the same situation & 
roused the resentment of one set & the fears of the other, to that de- 
gree that 3 cheers were the consequence & a declaration that they 
would sooner die than leave the ground the[y] were on without this 
body of men; Brown would have laughed at Pickens & Lee likewise. 
So far therefore were the supplies of Augusta prevented by Pickens 
Brigade that part of his own Brigade was actually raised under the 
command of a Georgian & Col. Le Roy Hammond himself compelled to 
his option either, going off as a prisoner, or taking the command of 
men so raised. It is not here intended to take any merit from that 
gallant Young officer Col. Saml. Hammond who commanded a Corps 
of So. Carolina Dragoons & who was exceedingly active with Col. Jack- 
son. 

Page 236, 237 

After the capture of Charleston & the sole possession of the State 
of Georgia was in the British hands, the most horrid crimes were 
practiced by Brown & Grierson on the families of those who had re- 
mained firm to the American cause. They were robbed of all their prop- 
erty & ordered off the limits of the then Province in so many days under 
pretence that they held correspondence with the Rebels many of them 
with four five & six small children. This they were compelled to com- 
ply with or starve for it had been criminal to support them. Most of 
those unfortunate creatures were obliged to make the journey bare- 
foot & if a Horse was procured from some charitable person, they were 
sure to be robbed of it before they had reached twenty miles of their 
way. So there was not a resting place for them until they reached the 
borders of North Carolina a distance to many of near 200 miles & where 
they usually arrived almost famished with hunger & some never re- 
covered. Many Ladies of Superior Character were treated in this man- 
ner. Genl. Clarke's & Col. Williamson's wives were so ordered off. Genl. 
Twiggs went with a Flagg to receive his at Augusta where he was 
treated p[o]litely but on his return was waylaid & fired on. A young 
gentleman universally beloved named Watson who held the Flag was 
killed with it in his hand & Genl. Twiggs very narrowly escaped him- 
self with his life leaving his wife & family at their mercy who plun- 
dered them & let them go. 

The severe treatment of the families of the refugees by Grierson 
& where no families, of the aged parents of those who embraced the 
American cause, was at last fatal to Grierson himself. He had very ill 
treated among others an old Gentleman father of Capt. Alexander & 
notwithstanding his grreat age, nearly eighty, had him brought up to 

20 



Augusta & confined to one of the bastions of Brown's Fort; he was 
released when the Fort fell & it is supposed Capt. Alexander shot the 
fatal ball. 

Page 238, 239 

"Genl. Pickens & Col. Clarke" — Genl. Pickens on his arrival in So. 
Carolina, for the Georgians determined to return to that State one 
party under Col. Baker was already there & another left the Genl.'s 
camp under Cols. Williamson & Dunn & Majr. Stirk who entered Wilkes 
county & defeated all the Royalists it contained. They formed a body 
under Col. Baker in the vicinity of Augusta. About this time the Genl. 
detached Col. Hammond a brave & gallant officer to raise the militia 
on the Carolina side of Savannah River. This he had not force enough 
to effect without assistance. Col. Baker therefore detached Col. Jack- 
son to that side who in conjunction with Col. Hammond who gave up 
the command to Col. Jackson raised the settlers on that side to the 
number of 250 men & compelled Col. LeRoy Hammond to receive the 
command of them. It was near a month after this & when Augusta was 
closely invested that Genl. Pickens & Col. Lee came before it who in 
their official letters never mentioned a Georgian as present although 
numerous acts of gallantry had been displayed & a battery was erected 
near Grierson's previous to their arrival under Col. Jackson to whom 
Col. Baker gave up his superiority & afterwards on his arrival & re- 
covery of his wound under Col. Clarke in the official letters Pickens 
& Lee took all credit to themselves. 

Page 240 

Col. Jackson was then raising a corps which Genl. Green had prom- 
ised him the command of; among other instances he was appointed to 
command an advance of an attack on Grierson's fort whilst he was 
supposed [supported] by Capt. Rudolph of the Legion company. On 
his arrival within a few paces of the fort the enemy abandoned it — 
the Col. took prisoners a number of the enemy. After the reduction 
of Augusta Genl. Green in compliance with a former promise as he 
was pleased to express himself, for the gallant conduct of Major Jack- 
son gave that officer a Lieutt. Col.'s commission to raise a corps to be 
denominated a Legion which was confirmed afterwards by Congress 
in a commission dated [blank] 1781 — to consist of three troops of Horse 
& two companies of Infantry. His Horse were composed of men who had 
been frequently in the field — his Infantry agreeably to an article of 
the treaty he enlisted from the Tories taken in Brown's fort which 
was generally supposed to be a rash business. The event however proved 
the contrary, for the number of desertions from (Page 242, 243) his 
infantry during one of the hardest campaigns in America did not 
equal that of his own Horse, or of any other corps under Genl. Wayne 
& during almost the whole period they were without clothes & for 

21 



days together without any thing to eat but hominy or rice & almost 
continually exposed to the vicissitudes of wind & weather in an ad- 
vanced post & in a boggy marshy country. Notwithstanding their vicin- 
ity to their former friends being seldom further than twelve miles 
from Savannah during Genl. Wayne being in Georgia, but six of his 
Infantry left him during that period. 

Page 245 
"fifty men" — Genl. Green previous to raising the Legion sent orders 
to Col. Jackson who commanded at Augusta to abandon that post & 
join him. This the Col. after a march of 30 miles found impracticable, 
entirely cut off from the main body he formed the resolution to return 
& keep possession of that post, which he accomplished. The Col. after- 
wards marched for Wilkes county to succour the militia & Inhabi- 
tants under Col. Clarke who were threatened by the garrison of Ninety 
Six & the Tories of So. Carolina. In this expedition the Hon. Joseph 
Clay Esqr paymaster general to the Southern Department, whose virtue 
& fortitude had been severly tried went a volunteer, his chief inten- 
tion being to procure a passage for himself through the inimical parts 
of So. Carolina to the main army. This Gentleman although bred in 
the easy affluence of life, proved that he could share any danger or 
hardship to which an army might be exposed. Tents to the southern 
state Troops or militia were at this day unknown, the little necessaries 
which the northern & even southern main army participated of were 
never enjoyed & even for weeks together even Salt was not to be pro- 
cured to say nothing of the want of spirits nourishment for the sick & 
wounded &c &c. At night officer & soldier lay exposed to the open air 
whether the weather was wet or dry, wrapped up in a single blanket 
if he had one, for scores had no blankets at all. Yet to a disinterested 
speculator it would have appeared that they had possessed every kind 
of luxury. Cheerful & contented they sang around their evening fires 
ate their homely fare, chatted over the many scenes they had been 
engaged in & slept as soundly as if no danger had been near. The news 
of an Enemy's advance made little impression on their minds; di- 
vested of care & stript of all their property they rejoiced in an oppor- 
tunity of revenge for the many injuries their unfortunate relatives 
& friends had suffered. Mr Clay participated in these scenes, slept as 
they slept & ate as they ate, but found from the situation of Ninety 
Six district & the reinforcement sent the garrison that his intended 
passage could not be effected, returned to Augusta & sometimes after, 
on the enemy's evacuating that post crossed the country to Camden 
where he after a long absence met once more with his amiable fam- 
ily. Mrs Clay had been unavoidably left at that place after the fall of 
Charleston with her numerous family. After leaving several temporary 
settlements which Mr Clay had made for them her amiable disposi- 
tion which needed only to be known to be admired was very fully 

22 



exercised after the battle of Camden. Officers & soldiers of the unfortu- 
nate army, prisoners & wounded partook of her attention & liberality 
& many of her countrymen's lives were no doubt preserved through 
her means. The British officers themselves could not avoid paying her 
that homage which is due to a virtuous & amiable female. Augusta in 
Georgia was held by Col. Jackson until a Legislature was convened 
there in August 1781 when the Hon Nathan Brownson was elected 
Governor & Col. Twiggs in consideration of his gallant services was 
appointed a Brigadier. In Septr. the Genl. with Col. Jackson's Legion 
advanced & took post midway between Augusta & Savannah & were 
engaged in continual skirmishes. Some small time previous to Genl. 
Twiggs marching with the militia & Col. Jackson's Legion from Au- 
gusta the British at Savannah had formed the design of inducing Col. 
Jackson's Legion to revolt & very nearly completed it by means of 
some non-commissioned officers of his Infantry who had been in the 
British service (334 & 335). A detachment had marched from Savannah 
to join the insurgents but Col. Jackson received timely notice from 
his servant, one of his Dragoons by name David Davis who observing 
that all was not well appeared discontented & railed against the Colonel. 
This had the desired effect & the ringleaders trusted him with the 
whole design, which he communicated to the Colonel. Their design 
was for the Colonel's guard to bayonet him on his bed, to murder the 
principal officers & carry the Governor & Council to Savannah. The 
Col. had not a moment to lose but sent his immediate orders to his 
Dragoons not engaged in the conspiracy to come to him. On their 
arrival he ordered the Infantry out without arms under pretence of 
receiving clothing & came full charge upon them. A court martial was 
called & the ringleaders were executed & from that moment the great- 
est dependence might have been, & was placed by the Col. in his Infan- 
try & to which two gallant officers Morrison & Alleson [Allison] greatly 
contributed. The state paid Davis the Col's, servant the highest com- 
pliment for his fidelity — gave him five hundred acres of land a Horse, 
bridle & complete saddle as marks of their appreciation. In November 
1781 Genl. Twiggs detached Col. Jackson the Dragoon of Stalling's 
Troops & McKay's Riflemen & Carr's volunteer Dragoons to surprise 
the British fort at Ogeechee ferry which he effectually did taking the 
reconnoitring party sent out by them for the express purpose of pre- 
venting his approach without notice to a man. The British at the white 
House were taken so unawares that they instantly surrendered. But 
the glory of this brilliant action is almost immediately obscured by 
Capt. Carr's killing one of the British officers after the other had sur- 
rendered, who now resumed their arms & many of them being in a 
fortified House Col. Jackson was compelled to relinquish his prize. 

The party was commanded by Capt. Johnson who pulled off his hat 
& presented his sword to Col. Jackson. 



23 



The next object which presented itself to the Col. was a strong post 
of militia at Butler's House about a mile distant from the other post, 
this he immediately carried taking or killing almost every man ft 
about five Oclock was himself attacked by the British Col. Campbell 
& the whole force of British Cavalry a reinforcement having arrived 
from Savannah. 

The Col. was here in a trying situation, the riflemen under McKay 
left him & fell to plundering. With Stalling's Troop of about 30 men 
Carr's Dragoons about 19, making in the whole 49 & eight dismounted 
men who stood by under Capt. Wm. Greer he had to encounter by their 
own account 85 British Dragoons well accourtred. He covered his 
Dragoons behind a small Hammock of Bushes & presented his militia 
which was charged by the British — when the Col. charged the centre 
of the British Column & broke them necessity alone compelled the 
British to form again, being stopped in their flight by a fence. On form- 
ing the British far outnumbered the American detachment, many of 
whom contrary to orders to dispose of these of the rear of the British 
column, after it had been broken in the centre; it became therefore 
a drawn battle; but the British suffered most severely. Lieut. Harden- 
brook of the British Dragoons was killed & several officers wounded 
making in the whole to the number of 42 officers & privates killed 
& wounded within seven of the whole force of the American Dragoons 
who lost six killed, seven wounded & five taken prisoners, among whom 
was Capt. Bugg of the Legion. Genl. Green wrote a letter to Gov. Brown- 
son highly extolling Col. Jackson's behaviour & promising to repre- 
sent it to congress but by some means or other as was always the case 
where action was performed by a Georgian no further notice was taken 
of it. The advantages of the action were felt after Genl. Wayne came 
to Georgia the British Cavalry ever after avoiding if possible coming 
to action in that state. The slaughter in this action was made alto- 
gether by the sword. c 

Pages 362, 363 
The Legislature of Georgia again convened in Jany. 1782 at Augusta 
& chose the Hon. John Martin for their Governor who as well as his 
predecessor Brownson accepted the government with halters as it were 
around their necks & the Legislature itself was not without danger 
the members being compelled to carry their arms with them to the 
Senate House to prevent surprize. Several salutary laws were passed 
& encouragement given to induce officers & privates of the Militia to 
keep their ground. 

Pages 364, 365 [Should be 366] 
The thanks of the house were presented to those gallant officers 
Twiggs & Clarke; a plantation was presented to the latter & bounties 



6. Cf. Jackson's letter to Nathan Brownson, November 7, 1781, above. 

24 



of land alloted to the other Officers & privates who in return determined 
to part with their lives rather than be again compelled to leave their 
country. Col. Jackson's Legion was advanced whilst this was trans- 
acted to cover the country & prevent an attack on Augusta & towards 
the latter part of January he received orders from Genl. Greene to join 
Genl. Wayne which he did immediately at Ebenezer & from whence 
after one day's resting he was ordered to take command of the advance 
of that army, which post he continued to hold until Savannah fell, 
being always, unless when a junction took place 12 miles in front of 
the main army & almost every day or two engaged with British parties. 
Three different attempts as here related were made to surprize him. 
About the month of April fell Major Moore who was of the Georgia 
line of Continentals & as brave an officer as any in the union, who 
had signalized himself greatly in harrassing the British parties. 

Pages 363 [368 ?] 369 

Some small time before Major Moore fell Genl. Wayne formed the 
design of destroying the enemy's magazines of provisions on the Island 
before Savannah & on Sir James Wright's plantation adjoining the 
town; the former was to be put in execution by Col Barnwell of So. 
Carolina whilst Col. Jackson was detached to destroy the provisions at 
Wright's plantation. Barnwell was surprized by the British Regiments 
& most of his men put to the bayonet. Jackson drove the British pickets 
& completed his object in presence of the whole British army & made 
good his retreat through a camp of 200 Tories & Refugees, who were 
inoculated with the Small pox & were altogether at his mercy, but, 
whom, when the Col. knew their situation, he did not suffer to be 
molested. 

See page 366, 369 

Major Moore fell on an attack on a party of Tories & Indians at the 
Alatamahala who had taken post in a blockhouse. He was killed with 
several of his detachment at the door, forcing it open. A brave young 
Gentleman a volunteer, by name Smith fell with him. The Major was 
a great loss & much regretted. 

Page 364 [Should be 365] 

Immediately after Genl. Wayne's crossing into Georgia he detached 
Major Habersham who acted as his aid with a detachment over Ogee- 
chee to intercept a party of Indians on their way to Savannah. This 
the Major accomplished & conducted them to the Genl's. camp with 
very little slaughter, part of these Indians were afterwards dismissed 
& sent home to the nation with talks from Genl. Wayne & Governor 
Martin. 

Page 367 

Genl. Wayne detached Col. Jackson who commanded his advance 
whilst in Georgia to fall in on the Ogeechee roat [road] at James 

25 



Habersham's Esqr which he did & obtained information that a troop 
of Dragoons were at Ogeechee ferry. Col. Jackson posted his main 
body at little Ogeechee bridge & moved on with his horse & a few 
mounted Infantry. He fell in with a large body of British Militia at 
Fox's with a detachment of Regulars; those he charged unsuccessfully 
& was compelled to retreat. He was pursued by the British whole force 
of Dragoons until he recovered his main body & where by a judicious 
disposition he almost totally unhorsed the British & if his own Dra- 
goons had behaved equal to his Infantry must have captured the whole 
party. It was however of the greater service to Genl. Wayne who in 
consequence of that action was opposed to but few Dragoons & enabled 
with much greater ease to defeat the enemy. 

[Pages 369, 370] 

The Keys of the gates of Savannah, in consequence of an order of 
Genl. Wayne were delivered up by the committee of British officers 
to Col. Jackson who first re-entered that town after it had been in 
possession of the British three years, six months & thirteen days. The 
British Fleet lay at Tybee several days after the evacuation of Savan- 
nah & many flags passed for the purpose of obtaining property but 
in vain. The number of Slaves lost to the state could not have been 
less than 5 to 6000. Part of the Troops sailed for New York, some for 
Charleston & the West Indies & the remainder consisting of Brown's 
Rangers proceeded by the inland passage for the town of Augusta. The 
last skirmish in Georgia between the Troops of the two nations was 
on Delegal's point in Skiddaway Island where Col. Jackson had taken 
post by order of Genl. Wayne with a few militia who were compelled 
to retreat after taking an armed Boat with her crew from the superior 
numbers of the enemy supported by two armed Gallies & several large 
armed vessels who destroyed the buildings on Delegal's plantation on 
the 25th July 1782. 

The Loyalists who accepted of the terms of Governor Martin's procla- 
mation & those whose conduct had deserved notice were formed into 
a Corps under the pay of the continentals & commanded by Majr. 
Jno. Habersham, whose conduct during the whole revolution had been 
uniform, who had early accepted a commission in the first Georgia 
Regiment & had been the Brigade Major & friend of that great dis- 
ciplinarian Genl. Elbert & had himself greatly tended to perfect that 
gentleman's designs in bringing the Georgia line into an excellent 
state of subordination & order. Indeed the manner in which the Geor- 
gia line was destroyed prevented any of its officers, Genl. Elbert in 
particular from shewing their abilities to advantage. On the Florida 
Expedition they had died by hundreds & the disgraceful conduct 
of Genl. Howe at Savannah threw the remainder of the Brigade into 
the Enemy's hands. 

26 



Page 376, 377 
This Regiment under Majr. Habersham continued until the defini- 
tive treaty of peace. The Legislature of (Jeorgia on the 4th day of 
May 1782 met at Augusta & passed a confiscation law by which the 
persons of those therein named were forever banished & their estates 
confiscated, but what at that day appeared a great hardship & griev- 
ance has turned out quite the reverse; their Estates in Georgia sold 
for certificates & at a long credit. The Loyalists applied to the British 
government for payment at the prices their Estates sold for. This they 
received clear of debts, which the State of Georgia paid & many of 
them at the time of the confiscation were more in debt than all they 
had could discharge, so that every farthing they received was clear 
gain. Many of them in this situation received ten, fifteen & twenty 
thousand pounds & some of them receiving this payment applied for 
& have received their property in Georgia. The Loyalists in this re- 
spect were better off than ever whilst the suf [f]erers on the American 
side had lost their all never to be repaid. Many of the most opulent 
merchants of that state who took the cause of the revolution having 
been reduced from opulent fortunes to a condition little superior to 
beggary, having no prospect but that of a gaol & the leaving their 
virtuous & innocent families to the mercy of the world. The Legisla- 
ture of Georgia again convened in July & presented Genl. Greene with 
a present of 5000 Guineas to be laid out in lands & Genl. Wayne with 
4000 Guineas to be laid out in the same manner. They also presented 
those officers with their thanks. Col. Jackson was presented by the 
Legislature with a House & Lot in Savannah as a sense of their regard 
for his services. 

Page 382 
The names of the officers of Jackson's Legion are as follows. 
Thorns. Washing [ton]. Major. The famous speculator, but a good 

soldier. 
Dragoons: First Troop, James Stallings, Captain; Stephen Blank 
[Blount], Lieutt; E[zekiel] Stallings, Cornet. 
Second Troop, John Lions [Lyons], Captain; Benjn. Har- 
vey, Lieutt.; [Blank], Cornet. 
Third Troop, Sherwood Bugg, Captain; [Blank], Lieutt.; 
B[enjamin] Hawkins, Cornet & Adjutant. 
Infantry: John Morrison, 1st Company Captain; Thos. Hamilton, 
Lieutt. Second Company, [Henry] Allison, Captain; 
Nicholas Millar, Lieutt. 

We, John Twiggs, Major Genl. & Elijah Clarke, Brigadier Genl. of 
the Georgia Militia & commanding officers of the same during the 
last war do certify that we have examined the regimental notes made 
to this work (Ramsay's revolution of So. Carolina) by Brigadier Genl. 

27 



Jackson formerly Brigade Major of said Militia & Lieut. Ck)l. of the 
State Legion, & we do declare that the facts contained in the said 
notes are just & true most of them having happened under our own 
eyes, or having been performed in consequence of our orders & we 
further certify from the active situation of the said James Jackson 
during the revolution that all faith & credit ought to be placed in the 
relation of facts by the said notes where we were not personally pres- 
ent. 

John Twiggs 
Elijah Clarke 
Augusta December 24 in the year 1791 

Notes on Bethesda in Jackson's Hand. 

[January 1792] 

A Correspondent, who is a Citizen of Georgia, and was in Savannah 
when the Orphan House Colledge & Estate were taken possession of 
by Sir George Houstoun & the Trustees, has requested our communi- 
cating the following statement of facts, to prevent an improper im- 
pression on the publick mind, respecting that business, which has been 
much misrepresented in an Extract of a letter from a Gentleman in 
Georgia to his Friend in this City, dated January 20th, and inserted 
in the Mail paper of the 5th instant. 

The late Reverend George Whitefield, in the course of his Ministry, 
collected a considerable sum for Charitable purposes, and with it 
established a Seminary of learning in Georgia, known by the appella- 
tion of Bethesda Colledge and annexed thereto for its support, a hand- 
some Estate called the Orphan House plantation; the object of the 
institution, was the maintenance and education of poor Orphan Chil- 
dren, and during the life of that amiable Divine, the object was in- 
variably pursued, and respectable Characters are now living, who owe 
their situations in life to the foundation of that seminary. By Mr 
Whitefields Will, the property was left in trust, to Selina, Countess 
Dowager of Huntingdon, who residing in England, could not (or did 
not) pay that attention to its interest which this infant establishment 
required, it of course was on the decline, previous to the Revolut[ion.] 

Since the "War however, so far have the profits of the Orphan House 
estate been diverted from Mr Whitefields intentions, that they have 
been uniformly appropriated to the maintenance of several lazy dronish 
Parsons, most of whom have been too supine to perform the common 
duties of Clergymen, and some of them have actually spent their time 
in Racing and Hunting with the Overseers of the Estate. Not an Orphan 
has received, the least benefit from the institution for many Years 
past, and the good Countess herself, not three Years since publickly 
offered this Assylum for Orphans to the highest bidder; this fact is 
well known to an honorable Member of the Federal Legislature, who 

28 



was applied to by a Gentleman in England, for his opinion of the 
value of the property. Her Ladyship however died, without effecting 
a Sale, and by her Death the Trust terminated. It is to be observed, 
that the trust did not extend to her Heirs, but by Mr Whitefields Will, 
devolved on her decease, on the Honorable James Habersham esquire. 
President of the Council of the then Province of Georgia, and who died 
before the Countess. Lord Rawdon, her Ladyships Heir, and whose 
pious acts during the Revolution are pretty well known to the Citizens 
of the United States, together with Lord Dartmouth, and [blank] 
Hill esuqire, are the Countesses Executors, and they have constituted 
Mr Johnson styled the president and Mr Gibbons, the present Mayor 
of Savannah their Attornies in Georgia. The State Legislature in 
November last, being its first Session after the arrival of the intelli- 
gence of her Ladyships Death, conceived the State to be entitled to the 
disposal of the property, whether it was to be considered on the ground 
of an escheat for the want of qualified Heirs, or to be taken as prop- 
erty on equitable ground, still belonging to Orphan Children, altho 
the trust was terminated, and of whom, the State Legislature, within 
its Jurisdiction, considered itself the Guardian. A law was accordingly 
passed, appropriating the Colledge and Estate to the purposes of its 
original benevolent institution, under the direction of thirteen Trustees, 
and of which Body, Sir George Houstoun was appointed President, and 
thereby the Colledge is once more opened, for the reception of proper 
Objects. A polite communication was made to Mr Johnson, by Sir 
George, and a decent behaviour would have ensured his continuance 
but Mr Johnson, altho an alien, and but a few months from England, 
determined on resistance against the whole community, and answered 
the President with scurrilous & abusive letters, far beneath the charac- 
ter of a Gentleman, and degrading to him as a Minister of peace, chal- 
lenging the Trustees to turn out if they desired, holding the law 
in defiance, bragging of his English blood, and boasting in particular, 
that Mr. John Morell was his Mark, & that he could not miss him 
with many other indecent and unbecoming expressions. This insolence 
in a Stranger, who seemed to bully the State and its law, and for 
the one half of which conduct, an American Minister in England 
would have had his ears nailed to a Pillory, hurried the Trustees to 
execute the law, and by which they were empowered to take posses- 
sion. On their arrival at the Orphan House, they found Mr Johnson 
armed — not one of the Trustees had a weapon of any kind — and after 
great threats and a scene of indecency, on the side of the Parson, the 
Sheriff did his duty, [words torn off] mentioned by the letter writer, 
to have been placed to the Parsons breast, was taken from himself. 
After the Trustees retired, Mr Johnson continued to abuse and ill 
treat the Sheriffs Officer, and instigated the Negroes to resist the 
Trustees, and the law, which rendered it necessary (Mr Johnson not 

29 



having the least shadow of legal claim and the crop itself unfortu- 
nately being mostly disposed of) to remove him altogether from the 
place to Savannah, and which was done by two Officers of the Law 
to the entire satisfaction of every Citizen, Mr. Gibbons & Mr Johnson 
excepted, and without the smallest trace of that confusion, which the 
letter writer has so frightfully described. 

Messrs Blogg, Netherclift, & Keeves are represented as having made 
false affidavits — the two former have been reputable Merchants, and 
are Heads of respectable families, and no person who knows them will 
believe the assertion; Mr Keeves is unknown to the writer of this 
Statement. 

The Gentlemen who are charged as having acted so very oppressively, 
and who are named at the beginning of the extract are in no need of 
support to their characters; they are among the most respectable, as 
well as early settlers of that State, and their names must ensure them 
not only respect, but credit, that what they did was lawful. Sir George 
Houstoun, lost a lovely Daughter a day or two after the possession 
was taken and the character of this meek minister, Mr Johnson can- 
not be better pourtrayed, than by his scurrilous communication on 
that occasion, informing the [bereaved] parent that the loss of his 
Daughter was a Judgment of God on him, for his conduct.i 

Resolutions of Impeachment against Philip Clayton, ca. February- 
March, 1796, in Jackson's Hand. 

Whereas it appears to this House from the Information on Oath of 
John Shepherd esquire a Member of the last Legislature that Philip 
Claytons esquire Treasurer of this State did during the sitting of the 
said last Legislature and pending the Usurped Act for the sale of the 
Western lands attempt to bribe the said John Shepherd to go home 
by an offer of seventy pounds from the Publick Treasury in lieu of 
his pay as a Member which the said Clayton calculated at twenty eight 
pounds. 

And whereas it also appears that the said Philip Clayton attempted 
to influence Henry Mitchel esquire a Member of the Senate of the 
same Legislature to go home pending the passage of the said Act 
through the channel of Robert Raines as the said Raines also has 
declared on Oath. 

And whereas attempts of this nature are not only culpable and 
highly imm[oral] But when made by a publick Servant entrusted with 
the purse of the State become barefaced attacks on the Freedom of 



1. For Johnson's version of this controversy, see "Bethesda's Crisis in 
1791," in the Georgia Hiatorical Quarterly, I (June, 1917), 108-34. 

[Included In the Jackson papers are "Extracts from the Proceedings of the 
United States Senate," March 2-3, 1795, pertaining to a treaty to regulate 
trade and intercourse with the Indians. As this information is available else- 
where, the paper is not reproduced here.] 

2. Philip Clayton was Treasurer of Georgia from November 22, 1794, to 
March 2, 1796, Georgia Gazette, December 4, 1794 ; Executive Minutes. 1794-96, 
p. 177, in Department of Archives and History, Atlanta. 

30 



the Legislature and the rights of the People and which if permitted 
to pass with impunity would found a precedent dangerous to publick 
liberty and this House has viewed with regret the success of corrupt 
practices in the said last Legislature during the passage of the said 
usurped Act. 

Resolved that the said Philip Clayton is a proper object in his pub- 
lick capacity for impeachment. And this House doth impeach the said 
Philip Clayton accordingly as guilty of high crimes & misdemeanours 
against the liberties of the People. 

1st For that he the said Philip Clayton being Treasurer of this 
State did at the instigation of James Gunn a principal of one of the 
pretended companies who pretended to purchase under the usurped 
Act of the 7th of Jany 1795 during the sitting of the last legislature 
& pending the passage of the first Bill for disposal of the Western 
territory of this State attempt to bribe John Shepherd a member of 
the House of Representatives of the said Legislature to go home & 
to return no more by the offer of seventy pounds in lieu of the sum 
of twenty eight pounds the said Shepherds pay with an intention to 
prevent the said Shepherds vote on any question which might there- 
after arise relative to the said act. 

2dly For that through the Channel of Robert Raines during the 
Session of the said Legislature & pending the decision of the question 
of the Western Sale the said Philip Clayton being Treasurer as afore- 
said did also at the instigation of the said James Gunn attempt to 
influence Henry Mitchel esquire also to go home with an intention 
of preventing the said Mitchels vote on any question which might in 
that body arise relative thereto, which corrupt practices are derogatory 
to the priviledges of the two Houses and subversive of the rights and 
liberties of the good people of this State. 

Resolved that [names omitted] be a committee on the part of this 
House to go to the bar of the Senate & there impeach the said Philip 
Clayton as Treasurer of this State on the Articles before stated and 
to demand that he be sequestred from Office be taken into custody 
& be brought to speedy trial. 

Nathan Brownson to Jackson. 

House of assembly Augusta January 7th 1798 
SiE I have the honor to inform you that you are elected Governor 
of this State. Your appointment by a large majority of the house 
evinces the great confidence which the representatives of the people 
repose in you. The Critical posture of our affairs renders it peculiarly 
necessary that the chief magistracy of this State should be filled by 
a person of experienced and approved patriotism. Your repeated exer- 
tions in the service of your Country leave no room to doubt that you 
will accept the office which has been thus honorably conferred on 

31 



you and that you will discharge the duties of this important trust in 
such a manner as shall give general satisfaction. I have the honor 
to be Sir Your Obdt. hble. Servant 

Will Robertson to Jackson. 

Senate chamber 
Louisville 13th February 1798 
Agreeably to an Executive order of the 9th Instant. The Secretary of 
the Senate Reports That Having no part in the State-house assigned 
to him for an office; He has accepted a part in the office of the Sec- 
retary of State. 

"Extract of a letter dated 11th of Septr 1198 from the honble the 
Secretary of War to Ms Excellency the Governor of Georgia" 

"The adoption of a Constitution which is, no doubt well calculated 
to promote the interests & happiness of the Citizens of Georgia is a 
subject of much congratulation, and I am confident that with respect 
to the Western lands which have heretofore been the subject of so 
much altercation & disquiet, the federal Government, whenever it is 
necessary, will take up the business on fair, just and honorable terms 
and with dispositions not less amicable and conciliatory than those, 
I with pleasure see, expressed in your letter. 

"The vigorous measures pursued by the States of Georgia & South 
Carolina to prevent the refugees from Port au Prince from intruding 
themselves into these States are proofs of a vigilant and active Execu- 
tive." 

Petition of Jackson in his 0W7i hand. 
Georgia 

To the Honorable the President 
and Members of the Senate and the 
Speaker and Members of the House 
of Representatives of the said 
State 
The Petition of James Jackson 
Sheweth 

That he was appointed by the Executive Department of the State 
on the eleventh day of February 1780 Brigade Major of all the Militia 
thereof, and in which appointment he continued to act until the 
Month of June in the Year 1781. 

Your Petitioner wishes not to dwell on the services he rendered his 
Country during those difficult and perilous Campaigns, he leaves the 
relation of them to those of your Honorable Bodies who were in the 
Field with him, but he flatters himself he may without a Charge of 
vanity declare, that his exertions greatly tended to keep the Militia 

32 



in the Field, during that period whicn established the Military Charac- 
ter of Georgia. 

He further Sheweth your Honble Bodies that he has never received 
one Farthing of pay from the State for his said Services, as Brigade 
Major, or for his other Services prior to that appointment, as Lieu- 
tenant and Captain, in which latter capacity he marched on the Florida 
expedition. He would still have remained silent, had the whole Debt 
continued on the Shoulders of the State or had similar claims not 
have been brought in and allowed of, and many not founded in that 
strict Justice, which the Demand of your petitioner is. 

He therefore appeals to the equity of the two Houses to place him 
on an equal footing with others of his Fellow Citizens who have re- 
ceived compensation for their services, and to direct the Auditor to 
liquidate his account hereunto annexed, and to give him an Audited 
Certificate for the amount. 

And he will pray &c 
Jas Jackson. 

[Notes on outside of petition:] 

"Petition of Genl James Jackson refer[r]ed to the Com[mittee] on 
Petitions lie on the table. Report agreed to on the petition of James 
Jackson Esqr praying Compensation for his services as Brigade Major 
of Militia from the 7th February 1780 to 7th June 1781. Yr. Committee 
are of opinion that the auditor be directed to give him a Certificate 
for Eight hundred Dollars." 

"The House do disagree to the report." 

Sketch of the Yazoo Speculation, in Jackson's Hand.^ 
The Yazoo Speculation was in embrio almost immediately after the 
Revolutionary War. Certain characters viewed it as the land of Promise 
but not for all the Children of Israel but a few only and which shortly 
was exhibited by a combination of Persons stiling themselves the 
combined Society where an Oath was exacted from every individual 
of Secrecy as to their plans and movements & no Citizen was to have 
a share unless he joined them; the secret however leaked out and 
the Society became disbanded. 

In 1789 the famous Swindler [Thomas] Washington4 as he called 
himself but whose real name was Walsh, then in the height of Specu- 
lation, who would sell Lands houses Horses Carriages and Negroes 
before he had a shadow of property in them and who was hanged in 
Charleston for forgery in 1792 having forged the South Carolina ft 
Georgia State Paper to an immense amount got connected with Alex- 



3. Thla article, greatly expanded, is in George White's Statistics of the 
State of Georgia . . . (Savannah, 1849), 48-54. It was not attributed to Jackson. 
There are some interesting differences in the two versions. 

4. For another comment on this Thomas Washington, see page 27, above. 

33 



ander Moultrie Suches [?] and others and instigated by the relations 
of one Sullivan a Captain in the Revolution [ary] Army & who headed 
the Mob in Philadelphi[a] at the State house which insulted the old 
Congress & who had to fly to the Mississippi for his conduct to save 
his life first set the 1789 Speculation a going. Artful & cunning in the 
extreme tho apparently one of the most open of Men & who under that 
Cloak took almost every Man in, he persuaded the Virginia Yazoo Com- 
pany of which the celebrated Patrick Henry was the leader to join in 
an application. Sullivans description of the Western Country was so 
extravagant that even in Georgia where Washington began to be well 
known another Company was formed. Some to be sure of the former 
combined Society others however of fair & honest Characters never 
impeached until that moment. Those companies employed Agents who 
worked on the Legislature & several of its Members were persuaded 
to be interested, but in no manner of comparison of corruption with 
the Members of the Legislature of 1795. An Act passed, the Sale was 
made, the People were roused and demanded a repeal, presentments 
of Grand Juries succeeded and another Legislature declared the Sale 
a nullity (Mr Duane had better see Mr Nicholsons report Session 1802 
1803 on this subject & insert it.) The fire of the Speculation now ap- 
peared to be extinct but the embers remained only smothered for a 
while but in 1794 it kindled into a blaze and Judges and Senators of 
the United States took the lead. No artifice, no attempt was left un- 
tried to get the leading & influential characters of the State to em- 
bark on it. One Gentleman then a Senator of the United States and 
then certainly of Superior influence to any other Man in Georgia was 
told he might have any number of acres he pleased to half a Million 
without paying a Cent provided he would put his name to the appli- 
cation, but that Gentleman, Genl J[ackson], firmly opposed the offers 
& told the proposers that he, not they had fought for Georgia & the 
right to that territory, that he fought for the people & it was their 
right & the right of future generations and if they did succeed he 
should hold the Sale void and would resign his Seat in the Senate 
come home and head his Fellow Citizens, and either lose his life or 
have the act annulled. His duty called him to Congress; 
the Legislature met at the same time and the Monsters 
of corruption prevailed. In the lobby was seen the dis- 
graceful scene of a Wilson, Judge of the U. States Supreme 
Court with 25000 dollars in his hand as a ready Cash payment; there 
a Pendleton, Judge of the District Court of Georgia, passing off Shares 
to the Members for their votes; and here again a Gunn, bullying with 
a loaded Whip & cajoling by turns numerous understrappers in Specu- 
lation; a Stith, a Judge & others of Georgia surrounding the Repre- 
sentatives striving to frighten or to persuade them into compliance, 
and many no doubt who would have resisted were intimidated some 

34 



Vfho could not be persuaded to vote for them were paid to go home 
and the virtuous minority were every moment in dread of there lives. 
To this very minority however did the corrupt majority in a few 
days owe their lives. The people at large, always right when left to 
themselves, rose in the vicinity of the capital and were determined to 
put all who voted for the act to death but were prevented by the very 
minority whom they had so cruelly treated. The alarm on Governor 
Matthews's signing the Act became General — he had returned one bill 
with his objections which would have done him immortal honor if he 
had not signed the second but the signing that damn[e]d him forever 
in the opinion of the Citizens of Georgia and he shortly after had to 
quit the State; indeed Georgia was a dangerous residence for all con- 
cerned in the Speculation. Roberds Thomas Senator from Hancock 
County to avoid being publickly tied up to a Sapling and whipped 
fled to South Carolina but was followed and killed; most of the others 
one or two Counties excepted, did not dare to appear in publick. At 
this time the whole State was in a tumult. Presentments of Grand 
Juries, Resolutions and petitions of the people against the act were 
almost universal. A Convention for altering the State Constitution 
had been called to meet in May 1795, but the Members had been chosen 
at the same election with the corrupt Legislature; of course little 
was to be expected from them; many of them were the same Men & 
others of the same kidney; the Presentments, Resolutions and peti- 
tions crowded so fast on them that a revision of the Constitution was 
relinquished and referring the Papers to the next Legislature, the 
Convention with a trifling alteration as to the time of meeting, broke 
up in confusion. 

The Main Spring of Speculation Genl Gunn having accomplished 
his ends returned to Congress the last day of February 1795 three 
days before the Constitutional close of the Session and immediately 
set his engines at work in Congress to interest the Members and many 
of whom became so. There is more than reason to believe that Mr 
Morris Mr Burr & Mr Bingham were among them, from certain reso- 
lutions supported by them at that day at the instigation of Gunn & 
which were prevented from being carried by the negative of the other 
Georgia Senator the rules of the Senate admitting no bill or joint 
resolution to be read twice the same day without unanimous consent. 
The two Georgia Senators came to high words & the opposing Senator 
told Senate of the wickedness & villainy of the whole Speculation. 

By the same vessel Gunn came in as well as by Post the opposing 
Senator received numbers of letters from different parts of the State 
requesting him to return to go into the Convention, and he embarked 
as soon as he could get a passage which he did for Charleston; but 
after being a Month at Sea, the vessel had reached no further than 
Cape Hatteras little more than halfway and the Southwest winds then 

S5 



growing daily stronger and the vessel built for the Amsterdam trade 
not calculated to beat to windward, and the British treaty being to 
be laid before Senate in June, the election for the Convention being 
then over and the Convention itself to be held in another Months 
time May & no prospect of the Ship John reaching her port in that 
time, so as to give that Senator an opportunity to be so early at the 
Convention as to be able to do any good and considering the Magni- 
tude of the British treaty which might depend on a single vote, he 
thought his duty required his return, which with Mr Bohlen Owner 
of the Ship was determined on on falling in with the Ship Commerce 
bound from Charleston to New York & where they arrived in less than 
three days a greater distance than had been one Month in gaining in 
the John. 

When Senate met on the British treaty, Mr Gunn took no part in 
its favor but held himself aloof until within two or three days before 
the decision and until he had ensured the Majority to support the 
Yazoo measures, when he came out furiously on the British side, and 
the Southern Negroes carried off by the British during the War & 
every other disadvantage to the United States were but as trifles not 
to be mentioned in comparison to benefits to be reaped from the treaty. 
Indeed it was well the opposing Georgia Senator returned to the Sen- 
ate or in all probability the Citizens of the United States would not 
even now be permitted to export a single pound of the first staple of 
the Southern States if not of the United States Cotton in their own 
bottoms, the [blank] article of the treaty declaring &c see it. It was 
then planted & exported from Georgia only, and altho the same 
Senator had whilst a Member of the house of Representatives in the 
first Congress, got a protecting duty for it. Mr Jay Chief Justice of 
the United States whose duty as a Judge as well as an Ambassador 
required him to be acquainted with all the revenue laws, knew neither 
that Cotton was planted nor a protecting duty laid for it in the United 
States. The Article would have been amended in some shape by the 
Mercantile Members but Cotton would have remained but for the op- 
posing Senator of Georgia and Major Butler Senator from S Carolina 
who warmly seconded the Georgia Senator on that head. Gunn how- 
ever, after he had his terms was willing to swallow all and without 
those terms had been acceded to that curse had never been entailed 
on the U. States. His vote, if disinterestedly given, would have re- 
jected it, the Senate on division being 20 for the treaty and ten against 
it exactly two thirds; if his vote as he threatened had been the other 
way, it would have been constitutionally rejected 19 to 11, wanting 
three of two thirds; thus one Curse begat another and Yazoo carried 
the British treaty which ought eternally to make those who abomi- 
nate the British treaty to abominate the vile Yazoo Speculation, altho 
that is only a single evil consequence which the Monster has produced. 

36 



On the return of the two Senators the publick indignation was 
turned towards the one and the publick approbation by all but Yazoo 
partizans bestowed on the other. Genl Gunn was burnt in effigy and 
in many parts of the Country did not dare to appear in publick, whilst 
Genl Jackson if possible had added to his former influence. He had 
before his return written a series of letters addressed to the Citizens 
of Georgia under the signature of Sicilius, proving the Sale to be in- 
valid and unconstitutional, calling on the people to beware of the next 
election the operation was great they were every where read with 
avidity and followed with diligence and determination. The British 
treaty being decided on, no object in the Senate appeared to require 
his presence as much as the Legislature at this crisis at home; he was 
solicited from all quarters more especially from the Mechanics and 
planters of Chatham County wherein Savannah lays to resign and 
gratify there wishes by serving in the Legislature for that County. 
He acceded to it and was elected by an immense majority. The people 
notwithstanding the favorable elections to their own wishes in nine 
Counties out of ten gave instructions to their representatives charging 
them to annul the abominable act bartering their rights and to restore 
them to posterity; petitions on petitions Remonstrances Resolutions 
and presentments against the speculation again crowded from every 
quarter of the State and a day was assigned to consider the State of 
the Republick when after full debate those petitions Remonstrances 
Resolutions & presentments with those laid before the Convention were 
referred to a Committee of which Genl Jackson was chosen Chairman. 

"Character of J J Drawn By Himself." 
Died James Jackson esqr aged - He was born at Moretonhampstead 
in the County of Devon in England on the 21st Sept. 1757 & descended 
from respectable families; in 1772 he emigrated to America & settled 
at Savannah in Georgia, in 1774 when scarce sixteen, he warmly sup- 
ported the opposition to British measures and was the first Boy in 
that state who bore arms against them. He distinguished himself par- 
ticularly when Commodore Barclay came against that Town and was 
one of the 9 Volunteers under Commodore Bowen who set fire to the 
British fleet in the Harbour of Savannah and terminated the success 
of the day. On the attack on Tybee he merited and received Governor 
BuUochs thanks, where Capt Bryan having been ordered back the 
command of the Light Infantry fell on him. He shortly after was 
raised to the command of that volunteer Corps which he held untill 
the florida expedition when his Men not behaving as they ought he 
resigned. When General Prevost invaded Georgia in 1778 he was ap- 
pointed Brigade Major to the Militia of that State and was conspicu- 
ous in several Skirmishes with the Enemy particularly in that where 
Genl Screven was killed & in one of which he was wounded in the 

37 



ankle. After the fall of Savannah he suffered prodigious hardships and 
the Militia of Georgia being dispersed he was compelled having lost 
his Horses & every Shilling of property to march as a common Soldier 
in Genl Moultries army from Purisbourgh to Dorchester & was in 
several Skirmishes in that route and among other adventures was near 
being hung for a Spy. In Oct. 1779 he was in the Storm of Savannah 
and In March 1780 he was reappointed to his old Station of Brigade 
Major and in that Month was driven by the overbearing disposition of 
Lt Governor Wells to a personal combat which ended in the death of 
the latter and his being shot through both knees. In May before he 
was well recovered he retreated through Carolina then in the com- 
plete possession of the Enemy with Governor Howly and had his share 
of the great difficulties they encountered. In August the same Year 
he joined Col Clarkes camp and was in a variety of actions particularly 
the celebrated one of Blackstocks and more than once such was his 
Influence & the love the Men bore him he saved the Camp from being 
totally abandoned; particularly after Col Clarkes being wounded at 
Long Cane. Genl. Pickens having left his parole behind him & joined 
the American army with a number of the Long Cane Inhabitants and 
the Georgians, & those being incorporated he was appointed the aid 
of that Genl & Brigade Major of the whole in which capacity he 
acted at the Cowpen & where his conduct was particularly noticed 
& has been since repeatedly acknowledged by Genl Morgan himself 
who thanked him on the Field; but owing to the negligence or inten- 
tion of Major Giles, Genl Morgans aid, his name was not mentioned 
in the returns to Congress altho the Virginia Commissaries was; there 
is evidence however still alive to prove the injustice done him and 
which he in a great measure blamed his own Genl Pickens for. He 
has been heard to say that if he ever was pleased with himself or if 
ever he deserved credit in action it was on that day. He led the Militia 
took a great proportion of the prisoners above a dozen Officers Swords 
and among them Major McArthurs the Commander of the British in- 
fantry & whose person he delivered to Genl Morgan. He was at the 
crossing of the Catawba by the British & the surprize of Torren's 
where staying too long in rallying the Men & making opposition he 
nearly lost his life and was reported killed to Genl Morgan at Salis- 
bury. Here when he arrived in the most dirty plight with a Straw 
hat he was introduced to that great Warrior Genl Greene who took a 
liking to him & declared to Genl Elbert after that there was some- 
thing in his countenance which struck him at first sight. His brigade 
after the British crossed the Yadkin were ordered to make a detour 
& fall in the rear of Lord Cornwallis which was so completely exe- 
cuted that one of his Lordship ['s] pickets of the Guards at Hillsbor- 
ough was surprized by them previous to his knowledge of having a 
single enemy behind him. After six Weeks hard duty in the Advance 

38 



and the severest which could be conceived & some Skirmishes, the 
Genl being ordered to South Carolina the Major of course accompanied 
him and after a variety of situations determined on going for Georgia 
whither a party had already gone and were under the command of 
Col Baker. On his arrival before Augusta he was ordered to recross 
Savannah River and to raise the Men on the South Carolina side which 
with the assistance of Col then Major S Hammonds he did to the 
number of 250 & compelled Col LeRoy Hammonds to an option of tak- 
ing the command or of being sent off to N Carolina to Genl Greene 
a prisoner. Having accomplished this business he returned to the camp 
before Augusta which he found in the utmost confusion. Col Baker 
having declined the command which Col Williamson & Major Stirk 
had likewise done and each possessed of different views and the cry 
being every Man to his tent Israel; two hours delay would have dis- 
persed them & have prevented we may assert the Fall of Augusta. His 
presence reanimated the whole and the recollection of his former con- 
duct made them all appeal to him. He requested they would wait till 
the morning when a single speech pointing out the miseries they had 
endured the object they were about to lose & their exile again from 
their families or the tryanny they must otherwise bear induced them 
unanimously to insist on his taking the command & that they would 
go to the Worlds end with him. He set them to making Fascines 
mounted a nine powder cast balls & was in full preparation for erect- 
ing Works before Griersons Fort when Col Clarke arrived and re- 
sumed the command, as did Col Lee and Genl Pickens after who as- 
sumed to themselves the whole merit of the siege without naming 
either General Clarke or himself in their Official reports and altho 
one half the struggle was over before either of them arrived and they 
had their full share of the troubles after, the Major in particular hav- 
ing led one of the advances in the Storm intended on Griersons fort 
and in which he took two Grashoppers & killed several Officers & Sol- 
diers of the Garrison. After this siege Genl Greene in compliance with 
a prior promise sent the Major a Col commission for a partizan Legion 
which was filled and himself made Commandant of Augusta which 
he maintained notwithstanding Lord Rawdons march between Genl 
Greene & himself. In October that Year he marched and surprized 
one of the British posts at Ogeeche but after their surrendering by the 
imprudence of the Militia with him who killed one of the Officers he 
was obliged to abandon his enterprise. He the same day attacked the 
Militia post under Capt Goldsmith and killed or took the whole num- 
ber and was himself attacked in the afternoon by the whole collected 
force of the British dragoons by their account 89. The Militia who 
marched with him except about 8 under Lt Williams Green a gallant 
Officer deserted him and left him with 30 of his own and 19 of Capt 
Carrs volunteers under that Officer to fight near twice his number; 

39 



by a maneuvre however he broke in ou the center of their Column 
& killed & wounded near his whole amount on Men; desperation (being 
able to fly no farther from the Impediment of a Fence) compelled them 
to rally and on looking for his own he found his column had divided 
and were engaged in the rear which induced him to make it a draw 
battle. The British themselves however confessed the crippling of 
their Horse by this action & that they were never able to recover it. 
When Genl Wayne in January after, was ordered into Georgia Col 
Jackson was ordered to join him which he effected at Ebenezer & was 
instantly appointed notwithstanding there were elder Officers and 
who complained to the Command of the Advance of that army and in 
which he baffled every art & stratagem of the enemy to surprize him 
which was repeatedly attempted. The Col frequently took the Horses 
out of Waggons & prisoners off the Commons of Savannah in presence 
of & within gunshot of the Enemy, burnt Sir James Wrights barns 
under the nose of the British Garrison & harassed them continually. 
In May he had the brunt of the action with Col Brown altho the con- 
clusion of the business was effected by Genl Wayne and when the 
Town was evacuated by the British in consequence of an order from 
the Genl for his meritorious services he was the first Man who entered 
the British Gates of what might be termed his American native town. 

After this he entered into Civil life, resigned his commission & was 
elected to the Assembly where his patriotism & humanity prevented 
many unworthy Characters from suffering who ungratefully repaid 
him for it after. He now turned his attention to the law & made an 
ample fortune. Having accepted a Commission in the Militia on a new 
arrangement in 1786 & the approaching troubles of the Indians he was 
appointed a Brigadier and at his own expence rendered many services 
to his Country during their continuance, in 1788 after having been 
appointed or having served in every Legislature for the State from 
the evacuation he was elected Governor of Georgia which he had the 
fortitude & prudence enough to refuse, it being certain that however 
uprightly a Man in the Cols conspicuous situation might walk the eye 
of malevolence would reach him so was he about this period har- 
rassed by factions who wished & tried to destroy his reputation in vain 
however they disturbed the peace of a beloved Family having married 
in 1785 Mary Charlotte Daughter of the late Honble W. Young. In this 
Year he was likewise appointed G Master of all Masons in Georgia 
and on the ratification of the Federal Constitution the Genl was elected 
to represent the State in the house of Representatives of the Union 
& where he was at least not of the lowest order of Speakers. 

In publick life he was patriotic and zealous for the preservation of 
those liberties America had so perseveringly obtained. Strenuous 
against the least invasion of the peoples rights and totally opposed 
to any measure of either Titles or otherwise which might endanger 

40 



true Republicanism. In private life he was affectionate to his Family 
and kind to his Servants; his Slaves lived & were clothed much better 
than those of most of his neighbours. The Mechanicks loved him for 
his punctuality in payment and the poor were never dismissed from 
his door empty handed. He had however (& where is the Mortal with- 
out them) his Foibles. He had a sensibility to extreme & frequently 
took amiss from even his Friends what was never intended as such, 
which rendered him frequently unhappy in his disposition and he 
gave too much way to violent passions which for the moment led him 
too far. Reason however soon resumed her sway & his natural good 
temper returned with all but himself; with himself he would be angry 
for having been so with others. On the whole we may safely conclude 
that his good qualities far exceeded those of a contrary tendency and 
that he is a real loss to the community who sincerely lament him. 

[End of Miscellaneous Papers] 



41 



SECTION II 

THE LETTER BOOK OF GENERAL JAMES JACKSON, 

1788-1796 

Db. Colo. With the present is conveyed a line to Capt. Williamson. 
As there is every probability of the State Troops breaking, I must 
request you will do all in your power to get hold of one or two of 
the first who I am determined to make examples of. I have wrote that 
Officer very pointedly and am resolved to execute it. Should you think 
the State Troops could be better posted than where they now are I 
shall thank you either to let me know or remove them yourself. I 
think that Bennetts covers your Settlement and Chatham. By Capt 
Whiteheads Dragoons you will receive all the Swords which are fin- 
ished, I believe 12. I wish we could send some proper Gunns but we 
find it impossible as yet; every Store has been searched in vain. 

I was sorry to find Doctor Dunwoodie when I saw him the other 
day determined on breaking. I hope to God something may turn up 
to prevent it; he is too good a Citizen to lose him and his example 
from the love everybody bears him I fear will be too generally fol- 
lowed. I flatter myself if your Members go generally for Augusta some 
measures may be devised for your good. I am not elected but I am 
determined to go up to lend my mite out of doors to your assistance. 

I hope Mrs. Maxwell is recovered. I feel for your distress and I am 

Dr Col 

ever yours sincerely. 
Jas. Jackson 

Do send Capt. Williamson and Ross a copy each of the inclosed Bri- 
gade Order. 

Brigade Orders Deer. 9th, 1788 

The General has with the utmost regret heard of an intended Mutiny 
amongst the State Troops. Nothing in his power has been wanting 
to represent their situation to Government and to procure their 
Clothing which he has nearly effected nor shall any thing in his 
power be wanting to render them easy and comfortable in their duty 
but whilst he declares this it is his duty likewise to express the most 
pointed determination to make an example of either Officer or Soldier 
80 lost to every sense of their Military Oath as to behave in so shame- 
ful and abandoned a character as to violate the laws of God and Man. 
He calls on the Officers to second his endeavours. He never will 
believe that Gentlemen who have entered the service of the State from 
patriotic motives (altho it is so hinted) can be so degenerated as to 
foster a measure, big with disgrace to their Corps in general and 
themselves in particular. 

The ringleaders of this pernicious business will be secured by the 

42 



Officers immediately if they can be properly asscertained and the 
utmost care taken to apprehend the first Deserter, who shall as as- 
suredly meet the extremity of the law as that his rash conduct will 
have made it absolutely necessary to enforce it. 

The Commanding Officers of the Militia regiments are required to 
give the necessary orders and to use every exertion to apprehend 
secure and convey to Savannah Goal every State Soldier passing their 
respective regiments, without a proper pass or Furlow from their 
proper Officer and to be exceeding careful such passes or Furlows 
are not counterfeit. 

Sib I received your last a few days since and with a degree of sur- 
prize note the resolution of the Men and the seeming compliance of 
the Officers to move off. You will inclosed receive a line from Col. 
Clarke who was very fortunately here when yours arrived; his sur- 
prize was equal with mine and his sentiments are fully conveyed to 
you. We have talked the matter over and agree in Opinion and the 
Mode of treating Men who can behave in so extraordinary a manner. 
For the sake of humanity I hope you will make this letter and Colo. 
Clarke's known. For I am determined to try and execute the first 
Officer or private who dares to abandon his post without Orders or 
permission and that they may not amuse themselves I have sent orders 
to every officer of my District to be vigilent in apprehending any 
deserters. It will be painful in the extreme to put the extremity of the 
law in force but duty and the call of my Country will totally silence 
the merciful pleadings where Men have so generally entered into a 
conspiracy and absolute Mutiny. 

Yrs &c 
Capt. M Williamson 

Dr. Sib You will instead of the Order you received Yesterday, pro- 
vided Mr Israel Bird will engage to furnish the Men with provisions 
order a Sergt. and ten Men to his house and instead of dividing the 
remainder keep them together under your own eye, visiting Birds 
post occasionally, somewhere in the neighbourhood and between Cones 
& Lotts near Laniers. 

Yours &c. 

Jas. Jackson 

B. G. 1st D. 
Sava. Deer. 12th [17] 88 
Lt. Jones 

Sib I have just received yours and have ordered a sergeant and ten 
Men provided you can supply or cause them to be supplied untill 
other steps can be taken but the men cannot suffer. I regard your 

43 



County and wish to favour it and from your own conduct should be 

happy to serve you. 

Yours ftc. 

Jas. Jackson 
Brig G. 1 District 

Israel Bird esqr 

Deer. 12th [17]88. 

30th Deer. 1788 
Db Sib I reced yours by Serjt Trammel; he conveys to you twelve 
& a half weight of powder and eighteen of lead. We have no flints. 
If I can procure a few, 111 have them sent by the first opportunity 
to Captain Cones. I am pleased to hear of your Stations. I hope you 
see the Soldiers neither suffer nor distress the Inhabitants. You are 
in a good Neighbourhood & I wish you to be vigilant. All is quiet to 
the Southward. Be very careful & sparing of your ammunition. 

I am &c 
Capt Rains 

Savannah Sunday Morng 14th Deer 1788 
Sib After the order I sent by your Serjeant it has been with a de- 
gree of surprize I have learnt of Capt Thompson of your encampment 
near Major Days. Surely you could not have received that order or 
some misapprehension or other circumstance has brought you down. 
I request to see you immediately that such orders which may be 
necessary for the service may be properly executed. 

Yrs &c. 
Lt. Jones 

Letters written on Publick occasions in the Year 1793 

18th March 1793 
SiE I conceive it my duty to inform your Excellency that Judge Hous- 
toun yesterday received information of a disagreeable nature from 
the Alatamaha from which it appears that the Creek Indians have been 
committing depredations on the South Side of that River. The par- 
ticulars the Judge will no doubt inform you of as he proposed in- 
closing you an extract from the letter he received. I have received 
no intelligence of the same nature from any other Quarter & am 
therefore in hopes the report may be exaggerated should anything 
material occur I shall instantly inform you. 

I take the present opportunity to request that the Militia appoint- 
ments may be as soon made as your Excellency may find convenient; 
at present little could be expected from Officers or privates however 
urgent events might prove. 

& I have the honor to be &c 

44 



His Excellency E Telfair 

I beg to submit whether it would not be well to have a magazine 
of ammunition & provisions established to the Southward to be ready 
in case of emergency. 

20th March 1793 
Db Col. Your favor by Mr Winn I received yesterday & sincerely 
feel for the unfortunate situation of Liberty County. I had heard the 
disagreeable intelligence previous to my receiving yours & had in 
consequence dispatched the communication to the Governor recom- 
mending therewith the immediate establishment of Magazines of Arms 
& provisions in your Neighbourhood. I lament it is not in my power 
to issue an order for supplies; it must first proceed from the Execu- 
tive by consent of the Federal Officer, in fact Militia Officers are now 
fettered to what they were in the last alarms, but let me beg you 
Col to keep up the peoples spirits; nothing shall be wanting which 
I can possibly do & you shall hear again from me the moment I re- 
ceive an answer from the Governor, I will send an express if the 
post does not go in a day or two, the high F^esh has prevented its 
arrival here for several days. 

I would advise Scouts to be kept out & to be supplied with pro- 
visions by subscription until an answer from the Government can 
be obtained; a few volunteers to assist the Inhabitants of Williams- 
burg I should suppose of great advantage to you and I therefore 
recommend it to the County, for whilst they have a Force opposed 
to them South of the Alatamaha, the Indians will be cautious how 
they cross the River. 

Should the Alarm continue and the Governor & Federal Officer not 
agree about supplies, I will endeavour to procure a subscription from 
this County, which I hope will (if there should be a necessity) be 
considerable. 

Do let me hear as soon as possible of every occurrence & you may 
assure yourself of receiving the earliest intelligence from me 

I am &c 
Col Danl Stewart 
commandg 

Militia of Liberty County 

Savannah Mar 24th 1793 
Sib I did myself the honor of writing you a few days since inform- 
ing you of some disagreeable intelligence Judge Houstoun had re- 
ceived from the Alatamaha, since which period, the papers inclosed 
have been officially communicated to me, in reply to Col Stewarts 
letter I have endeavoured to keep up the Spirits of the Southern 
Counties altho I could not avoid informing them of the little power 

45 



ladled with me and the impossibility of my doing any thing for them 
without your express orders. 

I very much fear that without encouragem[ent] as it is so early 
in the Season several of the Inhabitants will more & I therefore re- 
commend it to your Eicellencys attention whether or not Magazines 
should be immediately formed of ammunition & provision. 

The post I believe has not gone for the last Week & the Waters 
have been so high that I have not heard of a single private convey- 
ance. Should not some fund be established for expresses provided 
things become serious? 

I have the honor &c. 
His Excellency E Telfair esqr 

P. S. Since writing the within I have seen Major Tattnall who 
is just returned from Liberty County where he says the alarm has 
in some degree subsided & the conjecture of Judge Houstoun & myself 
respecting some White persons of had Character who lately ran off 
from Effingham County having done the mischief has gained ground 
there. Major Mclntoshs letter however somewhat staggers me. so cir- 
cumstantial with respect to Cashens Clerks. 

Your Excellency shall hear again from me the first opportunity; in 
the mean while I request the Militia Commissions may be sent down. 

March 28th 1793 
Snt I do myself the honor to inclose your Excellency a letter this 
moment received by me from James Seagrove esquire from which it 
appears that the disagreeable communications sent you by me are 
too well founded. 

You shall hear again from me by the first opportunity; a copy of the 
inclosed letter was sent to me. 

I am 

Yr Excellencys most Obed &c 
His Excellency E Telfair 

Savannah March 2Sth 1793 
De:ab Colo^tel Agreeably to my promise of giving you the earliest 
int-elligence. it is with regret I inform you that there is every proba- 
bility of hostility if not a severe War with the Creek Nation. I this 
Morning received an express from Jas Seagrove esqr giving an account 
of a party of Indians plundering Robert Seagroves Store, killing Mr 
Fleming the Storekeeper & a Mr Moffat & taking off a prisoner (one 
Upton) to the Nation; it likewise informs of the Indians attacking 
a Waggon about Sir Miles from Coleraine on Saint Marys & killing 
three Men & a little Girl a Woman & child missing supposed to be 
taken off. Cashens Store on Settilla from a letter received by Genl 

46 



Mcintosh from his Son William the Major was robbed about the same 
time & the Clerks killed. 

We must not sink under the Information but rather cheer up under 
our unfortunate situation. I request you to attend to my advice in my 
last letter, of succouring the people at St Savilla bluff & keeping 
Scouts out towards Beards Bluff which will assist the Post there and 
give you timely warning. I think the Murders committed so profes- 
sed an intention of War that should your Scouts fall in with any 
armed party within our line, it is my opinion they should not hesitate 
to fire on them. I am sorry that I cannot give a positive order for 
so doing, but this letter may be shewn and the censure may fall on me 
if the Friends of savage barbarity feel themselves disposed to censure. 
I hold it to be self preservation not commencing hostility, to be avert- 
ing an intended sacrifice of your Women & Children not the Wanton 
destroying of Indians in amity. 

The moment I hear again from Mr Seagrove or that I receive an 
answer from the Governor to my letters you shall immediately hear 
from me & if the Governor makes no provision I will set about a 
Subscription as I wrote you. 

Assuring you of the great confidence I have in your prudence & 
Soldierly conduct 

I am Dr Col 

You had better give the Officer at Beards bluff notice of the Mur- 
ders committed that he may be on his Guard; do not let your Men 
Interfere with any Indians at his post. 
Col Danl Stewart 
commanding the 

Liberty County Militia 

Savannah Mar 31st 1793 
Sm Since writing your Excellency by the opportunity of the 28th I 
have received the inclosed information. The Affidavits of Parrymore 
and several Inhabitants of Williamsburg I procured from Judge Hous- 
toun who thought as well as myself that they were of importance to 
the State in vindication of her conduct. The inclosed extract of a letter 
from Mr John King, the Senator from Camden I fear gives too much 
ground for apprehension of a general hostile disposition among the 
Creek Indians; considering the original as greater authority than an 
extract I should have inclosed the letter itself were not private com- 
munication intermixed with the publick paragraphs. The Letter also 
inclosed from a Captain John Milligan principal of a Settlement 
formed at Long bluff, confluence of Oconee & Okmulgee conveys in 
general the intelligence already given & tends to a fear of a very 
troublesome Season for the planters South of Ogeeche, altho he seems 
to apprehend more danger from the Cowetta Town than from the rest 

47 



of the Nation. What is best your Excellency best knows but I heartily 
agree with him that one of the best posts in the State for covering 
Effingham Chatham & Liberty Counties is Long Bluff and it is an 
intermediate Station between Rock Landing fe Beards bluff & the 
Country would soon settle in its neighbourhood & rear. A Station also 
at Williamsburg is I apprehend necessary, its being South of the Alata- 
maha will make the Savages cautious of crossing & preserve the fer- 
tile County No[rth] of it. The settlers of Liberty in my opinion being 
once more routed will never return generally to it. I have thought 
this of so much consequence that I have recommended it to Col Stewart 
to support them. That valuable Officer & the Inhabitants of Liberty 
have applied repeatedly to me to know what they should do in case 
their Scouts fell in with any party of Indians within the line. I have 
answered them that my hands are tied & that I dare not give an order 
to fire on them, but that with so evident an intention as the Indians 
have manifested for War & depredation, on the principles of Self 
preservation were I present in view of any party of Armed Indians 
within the line I should not hesitate to fire on them. Thinking it to 
be the averting an intended sacrifice of their Women & Children not 
the wanton destroying of Indians in Amity. Col Stewart has had some 
Scouts out but I have heard nothing since from him. The Waters 
may have been too high for the Indians to cross. 

Major Habersham informed me yesterday that the Federal Officer at 
St Marys had called for the aid of the Militia of Camden & had ap- 
plied to him for supplies until Major Gaither should take order on 
the subject. 

All my communications call for provision & ammunition. The Militia 
Commissions are not yet arrived, 

I am 
Yr 

Excellencys most Obed Serv 
His Excellency 

Governor Telfair 
P. S. The Inhabitants of Camden I fear are too much divided to 
elect Field Officers; my letters speak pressingly on this head. From 
Mr Seagroves activity & the losses his Brother has met he would cer- 
tainly make a good Officer. Messrs Carnes J King & T King are much 
interested. Mr Thomas King I think an active man & well suited. 
Abner Williams is at present the oldest Officer. Abner Hammond is 
a resident a Brother of the Colonels & I know him to be brave but 
I decline recommending any as I know not who would be agreeable 
to the County; they have too much party to elect from my accounts. 

Savanah April 2d 1793 
Db Col Inclosed is an order of this date which you will apply as 

48 



you think best either by calling out the Militia or by tailing the 
Horsemen to be raised under your resolutions as the 2d Class. 

I have received no intelligence since I last wrote you but a letter 
from Old Mr King who mentions that another party of Indians had 
been seen between Settillas & St Marys eight days after the first mur- 
der was committed & that he has no doubt of a General War. 

However I hope for the best and that things will turn out better 
than our present prospects entitle us to expect. 

I am &c 
Col Danl Stewart 
Liberty County 

Savannah 2d April 1793 
Sir The within Order is issued (Division Orders of this date) in con- 
sequence of a General Order to me from the Commander in chief and 
I must request attention to it; the unfortunate situation of your 
County however will no doubt induce your exertions. The post at 
St Savilla bluff or Williamsburg is of great consequence be pleased 
to see them supplied. A Contractor need not fear a payment as three 
hundred pounds is appropriated by the General order for the purpose 
of provision for the Militia on actual duty. I need not caution you 
on the part of the publick against permission of others than those on 
actual duty drawing Rations which I suppose in your County cannot 
exceed a Captain and one Lieutenant or two Lieutenants & Thirty 
Non Commissioned Officers & privates at one time as the Islands will 
need no defence. 

I am Sir 

Yr Obedt Servt 
Jas Jackson 
The Commg Officer 
of the Militia 

of Glynn County 
I expect you will need two posts on the Main, one at St Savilla, the 
other where you think most convenient & let them occasionally meet. 

Savannah 2d April 1793 
Sir Mr Limbert called on me with the request of your principal In- 
habitants for provisions & Arms & ammunition. The Order & letter to 
the Commanding of the Militia of your County left open for your 
Inspection gives him the power of contracting for supplies. I have 
mentioned you particularly to him & it is my great wish you should be 
enabled to keep your ground. I should be happy if I could go farther 
& allow provisions to your Women & Children but this is out of my 
power as I am confined by the order given me by Government. I have 
stated your case fully to the Commander in Chief & have warmly 

49 



recommended to him an immediate Station of Regulars at Williams- 
burg which altho I cannot say will take place positively I am not 
without my hopes of. You may rest assured nothing in my povrer sliall 
be wanting to support you. 

Judge Houstoun is gone for Liberty County or I should have en- 
deavoured to contract for you with him; if nothing takes place of the 
kind from your Commanding Officer I will yet strive to do it; for- 
ward the letter & order express to him & be as frugal & careful as 
possible with respect to draw[in]g rations; none but those on actual 
duty must draw or the fund will be too soon exhausted. I suppose 
an Officer & 12 or 15 Non Commissd Officers & privates the utmost 
at your station. They will require another post so [?] of you. 

Be pleased to communicate what intelligence you may procure as 
soon as possible. If Mr Cooke has ammunition & a Cag is delivered 
to the Commg Officer of the County or yourself taking care that none 
of it is wasted or fired off but in service I will draw on Government 
in his favor for the amount. I have no arms. 

I am Sir 

Yr Obedt Servt 
The Commg Officer 
at St Savilla 

Omitted 
Savannah April 1st 1793 
Deab Sir I was honored with yours of the 17th Ultimo on the 28th 
with the inclosures, the letter to the Governor was sent off in less 
than an hour after I received it since which I have not heard from 
him in answer thereto inclosed I send you a copy of his General Order 
of that Date issued in consequence of the depredations in Glynn. From 
the Order you will find that Three hundred pounds are appropriated 
for the subsistence of the Militia on actual duty only. Not knowing 
whether you have any Commanding Officer of the Militia I have in- 
closed the Copy to you with my order in consequence. I have written 
to the Governor on your situation respecting Officers pressingly & 
expect an answer hourly. Major Habersham informed me that the 
Officer commanding the Federal Troops at St Marys had called for 
the aid of the Militia; if so, they had better be on Federal pay & 
rations than on a State Establishment & I advise a continuance in 
that line particularly as the Federal Stores are lodged in your County; 
indeed, the Fund is too small to place great dependence on & in the 
aggregate I always thought the limitation to the Executive too nar- 
row; the consequence must be as I argued last Session a call of the 
Legislature assistance from Congress cannot be expected time enough 
to relieve us. If however you suppose and you certainly are entitled 
to your proportion that the State appropriation will be needed a con- 

50 



tract must be made to supply your Militia in actual duty & whilst on 
that duty only. 

Mr Cooke who lives at St Savilla bluff has just left me & informs 
me that the Indians in Glynn cover the whole Country roaming at large 
& driving off the Cattle. I shall endeavour to preserve that Station 
as it is of so much consequence to Liberty County & will cause a di- 
version even from you. Captain Milligan who is the principal of the 
settlement at long bluff below the confluence of the Oconee & Ok- 
mulgee informs me that the Indians commenced a predatory attack 
there in February driving off their horses Cattle &c. He likewise 
mentions Mr. Barnards informing him of Six Scalps being carried to 
the Nation from the Oconee but that the Cowetta Town are the Indians 
principally concerned. I wish it may prove so & anxiously expect the 
Favor of another line from you as I understand you have sent to 
asscertain the fact whether the Nation is generally disposed for War 
or peace. I must confess I have my fears. 

If War should be the object of the Creeks, they may in my opinion 
be humbled if the President would fall on some plan of the following 
nature. Let General Sevier be ordered to march with 1500 or 2000 of 
the Western territory & North Carolina Militia by the shortest rout to 
the upper Creeks whilst a similar body is kept in motion for the 
Cherokees giving them to understand the purpose for which it is in 
motion. At the same period Sevier marches let Generals Pickens or 
Sumpter march with an equal body of South Carolinians for the Mid- 
dle towns keeping another body in like manner on this side the 
Cherokee Nation ready to cooperate with the other in case that Nation 
interferes & let a third body of from 2 to 3000 Georgians also march 
at the same period for the lower Towns striking at & making a severe 
example of the Cowettas. The different bodies of Militia must enter 
the Nation at the same time to divide & distract their Councils & at- 
tention & all rendezvous in one of the middle Towns; the time, about 
three Months hence just as their Corn is turning which must be all 
destroyed. That Season will be most Judicious as the parties must 
be all Horsemen & the Horses will be easily subsisted exclusive of 
the assistance nature will afford in grass; the movement must be rapid 
& the whole Army return together to the Frontiers of Georgia to se- 
cure their retreat; the time required for the business two months or 
10 weeks at farthest & my life for the consequence peace with the 
Northward Indians would take place. The advantage we have over the 
Creeks would be their residing in a Champaigne Country. Horse can 
act to great advantage which cannot be done to the Northward on ac- 
count of their Mountainous situation. 

If the plan strikes you in the same light it has always been viewed 
by me, you may if you please hint it to the Secretary of War but not 
as coming from me, he would suppose I sought a command which in 

51 



reality I would not like to accept, particularly whilst two Officers 
of so much greater experience in Indian Affairs & "Warfare are in 
Commission (Twiggs & Clark). Either of these with Pickens & Sevier 
I have not the smallest shadow of doubt would succeed. If on the con- 
trary you should think the plan impracticable you will be silent about 
it & impute any forwardness in communicatg it to a Zeal for the 
interest of my distressed Country & the Friendship I sincerely feel 
for you. 

You shall hear from me by every opportunity which is however but 
seldom; frequently unknown to me people are here from your Coun- 
ty could you not direct them to call on me? 

Inclosed is a line for our mutual Friend Mr King please to give it 
to him. Assuring you of the sympathy with which your distressed 
situation & the severe loss of your Brother is universally felt here, 

I am Dr Sir &c 
James Seagrove esqr 
Superintendent Indian Affairs 
So Department. 

[Following letter crossed out in book] 
Sib The General Order of the 28th is received & orders have issued 
from me for the purpose of inforcing it. The inclosed extract from 
Col Stewart proves that a new draft is expected. I do not believe that 
the Militia of Chatham would march under the old law or the old 
Officers if there should be a necessity to call them out. I hope the 
Commissions will arrive by todays post. 

The inclosed papers contain all the information I have received since 
I last wrote. 

I am Sir 

Yr very Obedt Servt 
not sent 

Sir Your General Order of the 28th Ult & that of the 4th instant, by 
this days post, are received. 

The inclosed extract of a letter received by me from Col Stewart 
proves that a new classing or draft of the Militia is expected. I much 
fear that were the Militia of Chatham to be called on it would become 
a pretence for their not turning out; the last Order still confines me 
to the arrangement of 1790 which I never saw & the old Classes. 

I have not time to copy Mr Seagroves letter of the 30th re- 
ceived about an hour since to send by this post but will embrace the 
first private conveyance. No farther damage has been sustained since 
the Murder of the Six persons in Camden. Mr S has established a post 
at Colaraine which he seems to think will cover the Country below. 
He has sent a talk to the Nation by two Friendly Indians who escorted 

52 



a few families through the Creeks from West Florida. They had heard 
no talks of War in the Nation but that a party had set out to plunder 
the Southern Counties & Liberty. I should send the copies of the 
Talks but he mentions having written to you with inclosures of which 
I make no doubt they form a part. He together with Mr Wm Johnston 
who was in the last Legislature and Mr Thomas King are elected (con- 
trary to my expectations of any Election) Captains of the Militia & 
Mr Seagrove their Field Officer. From his activity & spirit there is 
no doubt of his becoming a valuable Officer. He very much suspects 
John Galphin to be at the bottom of the late depredations & one Lyons 
who is come this way as accessary. An Affidavit being sent me I ap- 
plied to Judge Houstoun & have procured a Warrant; whether I shall 
find him or not is questionable but I shall send it after him to Silver 
bluff whither Mr S supposes he is gone for the purpose of plunder. 
I will not pretend to advise but I think it not improbable he may be 
in Augusta to learn all he can previous to returng to the Nation; his 
name is Daniel. 

Inclosed are two Affidavits in addition to those sent already (as 
I think it prudent to collect all the proof we can of the Indian depre- 
dations) and an extract of a letter to me from Mr Cooke which should 
fully be inclosed but for its length & the impossibility of copying it 
In time being also received this Morning. 

It being impossible to prepare proper Magazines of provisions 
with the small fund appropriated, I have left the contracting for 
provisions to the Commg Officers of the Counties confining them 
strictly to the letter of your General Order & confining even the num- 
ber to be out at a time for fear of too soon exhausting the amount. 
I always thought the Legislature too confined & am more & more 
convinced of it. If matters become more serious a general contractor 
for this Division might be necessary & if your Excellency should be 
of that opinion Mr Cooke has requested me to mention him. At 
present Cattle might be purchased cheap to the Southwd if Cash could 
be spared by Government. As the present posture of our affairs is 
however I am of opinion that the allowance as the General Order 
mentions is best as the Men can find themselves & receive the draft 
on Government in many instances. 

I am Sir &c. 

Mr S has strong hopes that the Nation are not generally disposed 
for War. 

The Chatham Commissions I have again to mention. I have not 
heard of their being down. 
His Excellency E Telfair 
Governor &c 
Savannah April 8th 1793 



53 



Savannah April 11th 1793 
Sib I inclose your Excellency by Col Handley the Talks of Mr Sea- 
grove as I found on application to the postmaster that his Letter had 
not come on. The hurry of business I have to attend to, public private 
& that for third persons, as a Lawyer, the inferior Court now sitting 
will I flatter myself excuse me for not more fully writing at the 
present moment, but your Excellency may rest assured that no Officer 
feels more respect for your Office 

than your Obedt Servt 
J. J. 
Inclosed is an EJxtract of a letter just received; the Commissions 
are not down. 
His Excellency B Telfair &c 

Savannah April 12th 1793 
Sib I inclose your Excellency, Mr Seagroves Talks & extracts from 
his letter to me as I found on application to the Post Master that his 
letter to you did not come on. Inclosed is also an extract of a letter to 
Judge Houstoun from his Manager. I am angry with the Commanding 
Officer at St Savillas for not detaining the two Indians who are de- 
scribed in the extract as being so insulting; however the story may 
be improperly related. 

I am 

Yr Excelly Obedt Servt 
His Excellency E Telfair 

April 14th 1793 
Sir The bearer of this line is Captain Milligan principal of the Set- 
tlement at Long bluff. I have persuaded him to wait on your Excel- 
lency to make known the real state of his situation as I am highly 
impressed with the consequence of that Post as a cover to Effingham 
Chatham & part of Liberty; provision is what he most wants but 
being out of my Division I could not undertake to give him any Order. 

I am &c 
His Excelly the Governor 

Savannah April 12th 1793 
Sib Inclosed are two (General Orders, one of the 28th Ultimo the 
other of the 4th April instant as also two Division Orders issued by me 
in consequence. 

I am Sir &c 
Honble Brig Genl 
Jas Gunn 



64 



Savannah April 16th 1793 
Db C!ol Inclosed are two Division Orders the one of this date must 
be filled up by you on first demanding of the Captains whose names 
are to be inserted 'Are you a Candidate for a Lt. Col or Majors Com- 
mission of this Regiment? I authorize you to insert the names of the 
Captains to preside; three or four will be sufficient & two of them 
may act. Let it be done and notice by them be given without delay 
as the time may otherwise elapse. 

The inclosed from Mr Seagrove to yourself as Commanding Officer 
of the Militia of Liberty County will make you acquainted with the 
pleasing intelligence received from him by me this day. I think from 
the contents that the Inhabitants may safely return to the Frontiers. 
At the same time let me recommend however a vigilant Guard for 
fear of the banditti out & to be secured until the sense of the Creek 
nation is known on Mr Seagroves demand. 

I am &c 
Col D. Stewart. 

April 17th 1793 
Sir Inclosed you will receive Copies of General Orders received by 
me & Division Orders issued by me in consequence thereof. 

I am Sir &c 
Honble Brig Genl Gunn 

Sib I inclose your Excellency an Affidavit of Jacob Kendrick re- 
specting some depredations committed by the Indians at Long Bluff 
on Sunday the seventh instant. Captain John Milligan the principal 
settler there applied to me for provisions & ammunition, it being 
out of my Division I referred him to you. 

Agreeably to your Excellencys verbal order I should advise the 
establishment of Blockhouses at the Posts pointed out by the In- 
habitants of Liberty County as they must be best acquainted with 
their own Frontiers, that is to say Five Blockhouses at the following 
posts. One at Le Contes one at Girardeaus one at Cochrans one at 
Hickss & one at Bennetts. 

For the County of Glynn One at St Savilla or Williamsburg and 
one in Captain Moses Burnetts district at the post now occupied as 
appears by the inclosed letter. A third at Rieds bluff might perhaps 
be for the better securing of the Inhabitants on the neck below it & 
the lower parts of Liberty County on the Alatamaha exclusive of its 
being the leading great Road to St Marys and the principal Ferry on 
the Alatamaha. 

The settlers on Settilla have generally removed. The Fort at Cole- 
raine (no doubt mentioned to your Excellency by Mr Seagrove) he 
says covers the neck generally below it. Should those settlers return 

55 



it might be advantageous to erect one immediately opposite on the 
Settilla. 

I think it best to erect the number pointed out in Liberty in order 
that the planters may have confidence to commit their Grain to the 
Fields should that valuable County once break all the Assurances the 
U States could give would not induce them generally to return. 

I am &c 
Savannah 
April 20th 1793 

His Excellency E Telfair Govr &c 

Savannah April 26th 1793 
Sib Mr Smith the Commissary called on me yesterday to receive 
orders where to supply rations & in particular if he should supply the 
post at Coleraine or any where in Camden. The General Order of the 
20th only relates to the establishment of Blockhouses in Liberty & 
Glynn Counties & I do not conceive myself authorized to go beyond 
the bounds therein prescribed. I waited on your Excellency this morn- 
ing for the purpose of mentioning this Circumstance but found that 
you were not at home. 

I am Sir Yr Excell &c &c 

Savannah April 27th 1793 
Sib Inclosed are General Orders received by me from the Commander 
in Chief since I last wrote & Division orders issued by me in conse- 
quence. 

I am Sir &c 
Brigadier Genl Gunn 

Savannah April 27th 1793 
Db Col Inclosed is a division order of yesterday. A Contractor is now 
appointed & the Militia on duty will be regularly supplied, his ser- 
vant going to Beards bluff with directions for that purpose hands you 
this. The General order to me for immediately Garrisoning the Sta- 
tions & supplying the Men renders it necessary that a vigilant look 
out should be preserved. We have no positive news but a Mr Garvin 
from the Nation says the Indians are by no means pleased. By the 
order you will find that you have power to draw directly for the 
Men now in Service. The County will be greatly eased as the Continent 
supplies the Rations & if you call your Horsemen the 2d Class it will 
answer every purpose provided they station at those posts. Should 
they be too many for your numbers you must let me know & I will 
order Bennetts to be garrisoned by Chatham. 

I am Sir £c 
Col Stewart 

56 



Savannah April 27th 1793 
SiK Inclosed are two Division Orders one of the 11th & one of yes- 
terdays date. You will see them put into immediate execution. 

I am Sir 
Yr Obedt Servt 
Jas Jackson 
Major Genl &c 
The Commg Officer 
of the Militia 
Glynn County 

Savannah 27th April 1793 
Sib I had the pleasure of your letter dated the 14 which I immed- 
iately laid before his Excellency the Governor who has ordered a 
Station where you seemed to wish it at Captain Moses Burnetts; it is 
to be Garrisoned by one Commsd Officer 2 Serjts & 17 privates. The 
Men will be supplied with provisions by the Continental Contractor 
Mr Smith immediately that is those in actual service for no others 
will be allowed to draw. Captain Williams has the Division Orders 
a copy of which will be forwarded with this by him & which you 
will pay attention to. A Return of the Men actually on duty must be 
made every two Weeks attested by the Officer Commg the Detachmt 
& countersigned by the Commg Officer of the County, the names of 
the Men on duty must be set down in the returns for if they are not 
regularly made the Men can draw no pay as they are now on Conti- 
nental pay & Rations. 

We have little intelligence on which dependance can be placed, but 
I advise the Commg Officer to be much on his Guard; the Indians it 
is said are much dissatisfied. 

Signed 
J J 
Burnett esqr 
Glynn County 

Savannah May 2d 1793 
Dear Col I received your favor by Mr Smiths servant & notice what 
you observe respect [ in] g the posts in your County; surely with the 
stations at Beards bluff & St Savilla they must be sufficient not only 
to secure Midway & No Newport but the South of So Newport also. 
In addition to those Stations a Company of Horse attached to your 
Regiment and to be on constant duty is ordered by the Governor. You 
will order them to such Stations as you may suppose beneficial to 
the whole County having an equal eye to the South of South Newport. 
Rieds Bluff is changed for Carneys Cowpen fe therefore you will not 
have a call for a Garrison there. I will endeavour to see you some- 

57 



time next Week; it may be Sunday Week when I will consult you on 
those topics & with respect to filling up the Cornets Commission the 
Captain & first Lieut are those which the County selected to command 
the Troop, the Men of which may be turned over with propriety to 
this Corps & may be supposed on the same foundation the Men will 
be paid & fed by the U States perhaps the County will do well to 
encourage them by an additional sum for Forage; a provision for 
loss of Horses may also with propriety be made. The second Lieut 
is young Mr Maybank whom I recommended from my own knowledge 
as well as Mr Girardeaus observations on the sentiments of the County. 

As soon as you are organized you must again class your Militia 
drawing the 2d Class as the first to proceed on duty. Inclosed are 
Division Orders of this day; do see them strictly put in Execution 
& by all means be determined in the procuring returns from the Offi- 
cers & forward to me Weekly to send on to the Federal Commandant. 

I am Dr Col & 

Inclosed is a line for Capt Way, & his & Mr Maybanks Commissions, 
not a moment should be lost in filling the Troop; if the Indians do 
any mischief tread hard on their Heels & dont mind the line. 

Savannah May 2d 1793 
Sib Inclosed you will receive a Commission as Captain of a Troop 
or Company of Horse which you will endeavour to fill without delay 
and take such Stations as may be pointed out to you by Col Stewart 
unless you receive further Orders from me; a Commission for Mr A 
Maybank Junr is also inclosed. 

I am Sir 
Yr very Obedt Servt 
Jas Jackson 

Major Genl 1st Division 
Georgia Mil 
Capt Jos Way 

Savannah May 5th 1793 
Sm Inclosed you will receive an Affidavit of James Akin, a Man who 
arrived from the Creek Nation the day you left Savannah which I 
took as full as possible that it might be used advantageously in our 
favor. The Man also brought a letter from Mr T. Barnard to Mr Sea- 
grove which at his request & the desire of Mr B to shew it to any 
Officer of Authority I opened & took a copy which is also inclosed. 
As Carpenter was about to sail for New York I gave a copy of each 
to Major Habersham to forward to the Secry at War in which I hope 
to meet your approbation as Akin says there is little doubt of War 
& it would have been sometime before Mr Seagrove could have sent 
on the letter (as Akin was obliged to come this Way) or have ac- 

58 



quainted you with the information. With this you will likewise re- 
ceive the return for Field Officers for Liberty County. 

I could wish to have your Sanction in writing respecting the fresh 
Classing of the Militia that a classing should again take place. I hope 
your Excellency is as fully convinced of ite necessity as myself. Col 
Stewarts sentiments on the subject your Excelly received from me 
& one half generally of the 2d Class are either dead or removed, be- 
sides the draft formerly took place under other Officers & in many 
cases different districts, as for instance from two Savannah holds 
five companies; the old rolls are lost & many other inconveniences 
will occur; the 2d Class can still be drawn first. I have issued an 
Order to Old Eimbech in the case of the publick Arms & directed him 
as he has the receipts to call on the Officers & Individuals possessing 
them & in case of refusal to apply for advice to the Solicitor General 
who has promised to give it. For if we sue the holders & recover, 
other Arms can be obtained with the money arising from the Judgmts. 

I obtained from Major Habersham for the people in Glynn fifty 
Weight of Gunpowder & Two hundred Weight of lead & for which I 
have receipted to him as your Excellency seemed to approve of their 
getting it & sent Mr Urquhart to him & I had no opportunity of know- 
ing the result previous to your leaving Town. 

I have ordered returns from the Two Brigades to asscertain the 
Strength of this Division on their completion your Excellency shall 
receive a full return of the Division. 

I am &c 

I have understood that your Excellency has it again in contempla- 
tion to divide the Battallions in Chatham through the heart of Sa- 
vannah; exclusive of other reasons which were used between your 
Excelly & myself, this difficulty occurs Two of the Company Districts 
in Town must be divided in the Centre; of course new definings & new 
Elections will be necessary. 
His Excellency E Telfair esqr 
Governor &c. 

Savannah May 8th 1793 
Dear Sib Inclosed you will receive a letter brought by one James 
Akin from the Creek Nation. Akin tried all he could to get to you, 
but was prevented by the depredations of the Indians on the Oconee 
by which he lost his Horses & had to come across the Country to Ogee- 
che on foot & from thence to this place. He had heard the Govr was 
here but he had the morning of Akins arrival gone off for Augusta. 
Akin brought the letter to me & said it was Mr Barnards desire that 
the Govr or any Officer in authority should see the contents which 
he desired me to do. I hesitated until he informed me that Genl Irvin 
at his request had already broke it open. I then considered that it 

59 



might contain information of a pressing & serious nature which might 
not admit delay & that it might be sometime before an opportunity 
offered to you & longer still before a communication could possibly 
be obtained from you of the contents & I broke the Seal as you will 
perceive. 

I took Akins aff[idavi]t & gave that & B.s letter to Major Haber- 
sham informing him how I came by them & the Major sent copies 
of both to the Secry at War which is another Advantage as you might 
not have had an opportunity from St Marys as soon as you might have 
wished. I beg you however to believe that nothing but A's desire & 
Mr B.B request could have induced me to have broken the Seal of a 
private let alone a publick official letter; indeed it was no secret after 
Genl Irvin had done it. I inclose you a copy of Akins aff[idavi]t from 
which you will learn the reference a part of Mr B.s letter alludes to. He 
seems an intelligent Man & much attached to the U States. The post 
at Colerain is to be supplied by the Continental Contractor Mr Smith 
& to be Garrisoned agreeably to a Genl Order of the Govr with one 
Commissd Officer 2 Non Commissd Officers & Seventeen privates. The 
Troop of Horse will be supplied by the Contractor also. Weekly re- 
turns must however be made of the Colerain Garrison as well as of 
the Troop of Horse to the Federal Commt & returns agreeably to the 
Order I inclosed you of the 11th April must also be made to me. I 
would send you the Orders issued but am in a hurry as I have just 
heard of this opportunity by Lt Dickinson; the whole substance of 
the orders however is contained in this paragraph & the Commanders 
of the Garrison & Troop can govern themselves accordingly. 

I have not yet learnt that the Govr has done anything with respect 
to your Field Officers. 

Jas Seagrove esqr I am Dr Sir with esteem 

Yr very Obedt Servt 

Agent I[ndian] Affairs S[outhern] D[istrict] U[nited] States 
I am really so much afraid of losing this opportunity that I must 
delay the Copy of Akins affidavit until the next conveyance offers 
when you shall certainly receive it; in lieu of it I inclose you the 
latest advices from the Westward in which depredations Akin lost 
his Horses 2 Men have also been killed in Franklin & the S Carolina 
Fork of S River. 

Savannah May 9th 1793 
Dear Sir After Sealing my letter & sending it to Lt. Dickenson, I 
found he was disappointed in setting out, I have therefore the same 
conveyance to inclose you the Order & a copy of Akins affidavit. 

The Indians on Tuesday last attacked Mr Smiths settlement on Cap- 
tain Saunders's plantation & took off ten Negroes one of whom made 

69 



his escape aiter killing as he says the Indian who had him in posses- 
sion. Col. Stewart followed yesterday Morning before day with 56 
fine Fellows & I hope before this has paid them for their temerity. 
Every thing bodes a War & indeed as I wrote you sometime since a 
War in our present situation would be little worse than what is now 
experienced by our Frontier Settlers. 

I shall continue to inclose you the Orders until I know who will 
take the Command. The Contractor Mr S. comes with this opportunity. 

I have understood that Genl Gunn is gone to the Southwd by Order 
of the Governor; if so, perhaps he may have power to make arrange- 
ments for I have not seen his Order. 

I am &c 
Jas Seagrove esqr 

Sir I have just received a verbal dispatch from Colonel Stewart. A 
Party of Ten Indians attacked Mr. Smiths Plantation adjoining to 
Captn. Roger Saunders in Liberty County and took off Ten Negroes 
on Tuesday last. Colo. Stewart followed them yesterday morning be- 
fore day with a Party of fifty Six and from his Message to me is 
determined to follow them to the Lower Towns if he does not come 
sooner up with them the Troop which is enlisted for six Months unless 
sooner discharged as I thought it most advantageous to have them 
for a Certain Term and which fast recruiting are badly off for swords 
and Pistols, if there should be any among the arms sent by the Secre- 
tary at War, I must request your Excellency to allow us a Proportion 
of them. Mr. Coxe who is settled on the Ohoopee & is fixing some val- 
uable mills on that stream is desirous of a Station there and applied 
to me for that purpose, it is out of my Division, and I have referred 
him to your Excellency. It is certain that Posts in that direction will 
greatly tend to secure Effingham and this County. 

I have an application from Mr. James Jones to raise a Company of 
Horse on the same footing with those in Liberty. He is confident of 
his procuring men and of the best kind and will advance their arms 
himself if your Excellency will appoint him. He is anxious and San- 
guine in this business it is Certainly the best mode of Defence and 
even of offensive measures, for if another Troop upon the Saim foun- 
dation with that of Liberty was raised when they both get together 
they might move and act as they pleased & in addition to the Militia 
which might be drawn out. Could at any Moment follow the Indians 
Safely to the Nation and retaliate their depradations. 

I shall have to apply to Major Habersham for more Ammunition for 
Liberty County. Mr. Coxe's being on Horse back obliges me to con- 
clude. 

I am &c 
His Excellency the Governor. 

61 



Savannah May 11th 1793 
SiE I wrote your Excellency two days since by Mr Cox giving an 
account of the depredations committed on Tuesday in Liberty. The 
Contractor Mr Smith last evening received an account from the Rock 
landing which if true your Excellency must before this be acquainted 
with — that three hundred Indians had marched to attack Beards bluff 
ft a Company of Indian Horsemen well mounted to plunder Liberty 
County. This has alarmed me much for fear Colonel Stewart & his 
handful of Men with him may fall a sacrifice to numbers. I know 
he will do his duty & ignorant of their Strength will engage Six times 
his amount. I have therefore put this Regiment in Motion & shall set 
off for Liberty in an hour to assist that County if attacked & to be 
prepared for them should they persist. I again recommend the offer 
of Mr Jones for raising another Troop. "We have passed the Rubicon 
& expence must not be considered. A Troop is forming in Savannah 
but they can never be of the Service picked experienced Woodsmen 
can be of, always ready to act on the Frontiers & from their term of 
enlistment looking to no other calls. Mr J is so anxious that he brings 
this himself. 

I am sorry to inclose you the Affidavit of a Mr Censier taken be 
fore Mr Montaigut respecting the fitting out a British privateer. In 
our present situation we certainly should give offence to neither side 
if possible to avoid it & the present instance is against the Treaty 
with France exclusive of the loss of Arms which are so much wanted 
against the Indians & which will be required in this nefarious busi- 
ness. I also inclose you the answer of Mr Robt Montfort to Eimbeck 
on the subject of the publick Arms. He has at present no company 
& whilst he seems to pay a deference to the Executive Department he 
absolutely insults it by demanding a reimbursement before he will 
return the Arms. Liberty County & even this Regimt is very destitute 
of Guns bayonets & swords; not more than 2 /3ds at farthest are armed 
& one half of them very badly. There is but a small prospect of re- 
covering those delivered out here without Lawsuits. I shall have to 
draw on Major Habersham for more ammunition & call on the con- 
tractor for more supplies. 

Should the intelligence be true the Continental post at Beards Bluff 
must also be in a disagreeable situation. Should it not be augmented 
by a larger number of Soldiers, as it is a cover to the weakest & most 
exposed part of the State. 

I will write by the first opportunity from Liberty. 

& am &c 
His Excelly the Governor 

Savannah May 11th 1793 
Sir You will immediately order your Regiment to be in readiness 

62 



to march at a moments warning & keep out Scouts on Canoochie. The 
Indians it is said have marched for Liberty in considerable force. I 
am just advancing to assist that County with the Chatham Regiment 

I am &c 
The Commg. Officer 
of Effingham County 

Savannah May 21st 1793 
Sm I received your favor this day by Mr Heron, I confess I wished 
to have seen you on Sunday. Your reasons for a young Officer ought 
to excuse your absence; it assuredly originated from a laudable mo- 
tive. Horsemen I have it not in my power to afford you & the post 
already exceeds my orders from Government which were to supply 
it with one Commissioned fe two non commissioned Officers & seven- 
teen privates. A long Siege you need not expect, be careful only 
against surprizes & you will do well. 

I am Sir &c. 
Capt Throop 
Commg at Fort Bennetts 

Savannah May 21st 1793 
Db Sib Your several letters have arrived very untowardly — in your 
first you were fortunate as Major Habersham supplied you with am- 
munition. I was then at Beards Bluff. For the ammunition you then 
received I am accountable to the Govr & you must render me an ac- 
count how every load is expended. Whenever a detachmt comes in 
take the ammunition from them for you can expect no more than you 
have received. When an opportunity offers I will send you 30 stand 
of Arms, all which can be spared from the proportion allowed the di- 
vision. 

From my accounts you have too many Men on duty & far too short 
a period. Do not call a single man of the 3d Class until you have had 
every Man of the 2d Class out, keep those now out for 20 days if neces- 
sary for we must not expend all our fire in the first moment of 
danger. I know you cool & collected & therefore request you to go 
to the Frontiers & pick out one or two Stations which I may recom- 
mend to the Governor. Your County is a different situation to Liberty 
County covered by Washington on the upper & Coxes's Settlements 
on the lower parts of it. Straggling parties alone can injure you. 

I beg you not to suppose that I write to wound your feelings but 
I may have occasion very shortly for all your exertion; discharge 
all but what may be absolutely necessary to assure safety to the Fron- 
ties & call forth after fining the defaulters of the 2d Class those of 
that Class only to do duty until they have all gone through; do not 

63 



touch the other drafts. Let me see you or make a written report of 
your situation. 

Yrs &c 
Jas Jackson 
Col Wylly 
Effingham 

Dear Sir I have just received your favor inclosing a letter from 
your Brother. My great object in erecting Posts is to quiet the minds 
of the Frontier Settlers & to give as much protection as a defensive 
mode of Warfare with a subtle & cruel Enemy will permit. For those 
reasons I have generally left it to the Inhabitants themselves who 
must be better acquainted with particular advantages of ground & 
what spots will most generally conduce to afford security. Dr. Jones's 
opinion as an old Officer will at all times greatly weigh with me. 
There is one advantage in the Forts being on the other side Ogeeche; 
the Indians do not like to cross rivers where an Enemy is in their 
rear. 

I wish Genl Gunn who resides in the Neighbourhood & must know 
the ground was at home. I would request his taking this business on 
himself. As it is I will consent to what the Inhabitants near Ogeeche 
may accede to as their best protection & if you are disengaged will 
chearfully in the course of a day or two ride with you to look at the 
Work. 

I am Dr Sir 
with respect 
Yr Obedt Servt 
Jas Jackson 
May 23d 1793 
Col Habersham 

Sir Cornet Smithers who from the a^ellation you will find holds 
the Cornets commission of your Troop will hand you this line. His 
Men now about to join you will nearly if not fully complete your 
Troop. It must not exceed exclusive of Officers Four Sergeants four 
Corporals one Farrier one Saddler one Trumpeter & 69 Dragoons. 

You will cooperate with Col Stewart & endeavour as soon as possible 
to get your Horses in good Order; those too small must be got rid of 
by swapping or otherwise for should an expedition to the Creek Na- 
tion take place, you must be prepared & even foremost to march. I 
expect you will have to do so. 

Keep out constant Scouts towards Beards Bluff & give me the earliest 
intelligence of any attack on that place cooperating with & marching 
as soon as possible to the assistance of Lt. Clay. 

You will entirely lose your prompt pay for your first Months Wages, 

64 



owing entirely to your default in returns. I request of you to be par- 
ticular in the 2d Month. 

Wishing you to give me the earliest intelligence 

I am Sir &. 
May 26th 1793 
Capt Way 

Notwithstanding the loss of your prompt pay, the pay of the Men 
& officers will be very safe. 

Savannah May 26th 1793 
Db Col I have made Serjt Smithers a Cornet. His bringing 30 addi- 
tional Men to ye Troop convinced me at once of the propriety of the 
Commission. He will I have no doubt quiet the others respecting their 
past Months pay which is now impossible to be procured for them. 
For Godsake advise Capt Way to be more punctual in future. Use 
your influence with them; the whole must be of great assistance to 
the County*, reserving all your other Forces for pursuit. Saunders 
& Bennetts, I will endeavour to supply from Chatham. 

I feel so much obliged to Lt Wm Maxwell & I am so confident of 
his being a good soldier that it has been with reluctance I have filled 
the Cornets Commission with any name but his. I regard him as a 
Soldier & sincerely recommend him to the County should an addi- 
tional Troop take place. Once more my Dr Col do oblige your Officers 
to make me returns. We have lost enough in former Indian ravgaes 
in this Division & pay we have received none; it is time we should 
now profit from our Service. 

• I am Dr Sir &c&c 
Col Stewart 

* The men now sent may Garrison Le Contes as soon as Waldburges 
leaves Munros & Hicks's can be garrisoned by your County. 

You will be kind enough to ask Major Hammond for sight of a 
Letter wrote to him by me this day respecting Genl. Gunn & you will 
Govern yourself accordingly. You will at the same time remember that 
I do not wish you to prevent any internal regulation in Genl. Gunns 
Brigade, or which may not Militate with my orders. 

Deiar Major, Your line of yesterday has been just handed me by 
Serjet. Clarke. 

I have every wish to be on Friendly terms with General Gunn as 
an officer; at the present moment, the good of our Country requires 
it, but your Communication goes too far, & implies that you are to 
receive no orders but through Genl. Gunn; from the same reasoning, 
you should receive none but through Coin. Tattnall. 

You have too much experience as an officer; not to know, that 
there is a material difference between an interference in an internal 

65 



regulation of a Brigade, Regiment, Company &c, & the Command of 
that Brigade, Regiment, Company &c. on actual service. Genl. Gunn 
might be called into actual Duty & myself not, at the option of the 
Commander in Chief, and in the Field we well know that particular 
officers & particular Detachments are taken from Brigades & Regi- 
ments, who do not for whole campaigns, receive a single Command 
from the Commanding officer of such Brigade &c. 

I am in this Division, the responsible officer, & so far as I am justi- 
fied by Genl. orders, I will have the immediate & sole direction of 
every man in actual service. Suppose assistance necessary & Genl Gunn 
absent; are the Citizens to wait the formal process of a Communica- 
tion to Genl. Gunn, & when he arrives the Communication to myself 
& then an express from me to Genl Morrison, to order part of Effing- 
ham to the relief of Liberty? The propriety of the application to Genl. 
Morrison is as forcible as its Coming through Genl. Gunn; in fact, 
I either Command or do not. Most of the Genl. orders are directed 
to me & I am the responsible officer to Government & in turn those 
officers called out under my orders shall obey implicitly all such as 
I may Issue. The Governor gave Genl. Gunn orders without their 
coming through me, when he went Southwardly, & I imagine you 
would not refuse to obey a particular order from him, directed to you; 
altho' it might not come through me, your Brigadier, or Colonel. 

You will please to confine yourself strictly to the orders you have 
received from me, & I shall rigidly expect the same of every officer in 
actual Service; those acting otherwise, must expect to be called to 
account. Should Genl. Gunn, whose Military knowledge must con- 
vince him of the propriety of what I have written, be contrary to my 
wishes determined to contest this point, the Governor must be ap- 
plied to, & I shall not have the smallest objection to Genl. Gunns 
having the sole Command, provided the responsibility is taken from 
my shoulders. I shall lament any little bickerings at so critical a 
period, & shall treat him with every respect due his rank; whenever 
exigency does not require otherwise, inclination will lead me to give 
the orders through him, but my duty forbids my giving that up as 
a right, which is not so, & which may be of great injury to the publick 
interests, were I to do so. 

You will communicate to me, on every occasion, directly, such events 
as may take place, during your command. 

I am Sir, 
Your Obedt. Servt. 
Jas Jackson 

Major Genl. 1st. Division 
Major S. Hammond 
commg. the Chatham 
detachmt Liberty County 

66 



To his Excellency the Governor 

Savannah May 27th. 1793 
Sir, I yesterday received a line from James Seagrove esquire dated 
the 10th instant. From his information it appears that the Spaniards 
are establish [ in ]g a post on St Marys river 10 Miles above Coleraine. 
Galphin & a party of Indians were down on the Florida side last 
Month & carried off eight Negroes, some Horses & Cattle burnt a 
House & fired on a Man but took no lives. The Spanish Govr has for- 
bid a retaliation & says if the Indians will not restore the property 
he will pay them. Mr. Seagroves accounts from the Nation are still 
flattering but he advises at the same moment he mentions this that 
we should be prepared for a change. From the accounts sent me from 
Liberty sign of Indians has been discovered In several places & we 
may expect hourly to hear of an attack somewhere in that County. 
I have been obliged to order Scouts out from Effingham & Genl Morri- 
son writes me he has been compelled to fix Stations there the out 
settlers having almost generally broken-up & as he says Burke at 
present having a Frontier of thirty Miles. I shall make a tour there in 
a few days & will write your Excellency fully on its situation. For 
the more explicit understanding of General Morrisons wishes I in- 
close a copy of his letter to me. The Contractor is at this moment 
to the Southward or I should undertake to order him to supply the 
Stations the General mentions. 

I mentioned in my last that I had exceeded the number of men 
to each post allowed by your Genl order which I wish always to com- 
ply with as fully as possible, but the times are such that by saving 
a few rations much wealth & tax of course may be lost. I am fearful 
to withdraw a Man from Liberty in Its present situation. The altera- 
tion of the returns will occasion delay but I shall endeavour to have 
them ready for the Adjutant General. 

The Arms allotted for this Division I shall divide among the Coun- 
ties in proportion to their numbers. I wish we had Swords. Capt Ways 
Troop is nearly complete but there are not ten Swords among them. 
Major H. thought it prudent in my absence to retain more of the pub- 
lick Arms than your Excelly had allotted. I suppose he has acquainted 
you with it. 

I am &. 

Tuesday Morng May 28th 1793 
Dear General I received your favor of the 10th but it was not de- 
livered at the period of its arrival in Savannah. I was at that time 
at Beards Bluff & from neglect it never came to my hands until yes- 
terday Morning; this will account for my Silence. I have inclosed a 
Copy to the Governor. 
I hope you received the ammunition which Major Habersham de- 

67 



livered the express for you. We have now some arms allotted for this 
Division when you have an opportunity I will let you have a pro- 
portion of them. I expect to visit your posts sometime next Week & 
shall request your riding with me. 

Inclosed are some General Orders & a Division Order. Major Mitchel 
had them prepared for you but is out of the Way. I therefore send 
you what I can collect as I have just heard this opporty is going off. 
If the Contractor is with you make him supply your Stations con- 
fining the number of Men to 1 Commissd 2 Non Commissd & 17 pri- 
vates unless in cases of great emergency. You will take such steps for 
the security of the Frontier Settlers & their property as you may 
judge expedient. 

I am &c 
Genl Morrison 

Savannah, May 30th. 1793 
Dear Coloneil, I had the pleasure of yours by Lt. Jones of the 26th. 
Instant. The Arms shall be sent by the first opportunity, the ammu- 
nition I alluded to was what Capt Waldburgher has at Munro's which 
I wish delivered to you on his leaving that place this letter will be 
a voucher for you to receive and him to deliver it, the observation 
was rather premature. Thirty of your Seventy five stand of Arms 
came by the Horsemen, you will be so good as to receipt to me for 
them as they will be under your direction, they were composed of 
thirty guns thirty bayonets & sheaths thirty screws & twelve pickers, 
as well as I recollect the receipt which I gave to Major Habersham, 
the receipt I took from Cornet Smithersi is incomplete; the returns 
are well as far as they are gone but there must be two copies of each, 
one for the Adjutant General of the State, the other for the Federal 
Commondant, I do not think your return improper, you had also 
better make another similar thereto as well as two returns of the 
Men with me leaving the Horsemen out as they are included in the 
Weekly returns. I am sorry Perkins behaved so ill but it is no more 
than I expected from his Character the Contractor is not here but 
Mr Pray I believe has ample powers from him, he is now at the 
Southward. 

I am sorry to tell you that I fear the first months pay of Captn 
Ways Troop need not be expected, the men must be quieted somehow, 
Mr Smithers I fancy can do much that way, some little misunder- 
standing between the Federal Commondant & the State officers ex- 
clusive of the want of returns has occasioned it. Major Gaither it is 
said has refused certifying the returns untill he hears from Genl 
Knox. The Governor has written & expects an answer very soon time 



1. This receipt, signed by Jotihua T. Smithers, May 27, 1793, is on front 
flyleaf of this letterbook. 

68 



enough for the second Month. The Troops is now dificient in returns 
near two Weeks & duplicates of all must be made for the Adjutant 
General. I shall leave this for Effingham & Burke on Monday next 
to visit the out posts of that Brigade; previous to my setting off, 
if I get an opportunity I will again write you & inclose Major Haber- 
shams opinion respecting the Troops certainty in their payment, which 
may quiet them. During my absence should any occurrence requiring 
assistance turn up you will apply to Brigadier General Gunn. I am 
told that swords are making at Augusta I have applied to the Gov- 
ernor for some for your County. I really condole with your brave 
& distressed Inhabitants, but I hope that the Virtue & Fortitude they 
have so frequently manifested will not forsake them at this calamitous 
moment. Genl Twiggs & Brigadier Genl Clarke are marched with 
about eight hundred men for the [word omitted] altho the Informa- 
tion to me is covered by the Governors orders that they should repel 
or annoy the Enemy, they have each man fifteen days provision & 
there can be no doubt where they have marched. You had better di- 
vide your Horse, if the Chatham detachment marches previous to a 
relief arriving from Chatham at Capt Saunders between that place 
& Girardeaus, or Le Contes. I have ordered a Captains Command from 
Chatham to Capt Saunders's but it may not arrive in time. Garrison 
the other posts with your Militia. 

I am Dr Col with regard 
Your very Obt Servt 
Jas Jackson 

Major Genl 1st Division 

Le Contes would be a good post for the Troop with a picket to be 
often relieved at Girardeaus however I leave it to yourself. 
Lt Col Commg [_sic] D Stewart 

Commg the Liberty County Regiment of Militia 

To the Governor 

Savannah June 3d 1793 
Sib I inclose your Excellency some communications from the Creek 
Nation to Mr Seagrove & sent me by that Gentleman; they may be of 
great service should the volunteers on duty under B Genl Clarke 
pursue to the Nation predatory parties or advance to retaliate their 
depredations. 

Col Stewart advises me of the necessity of another post if not two be- 
tween Le Contes Station & the Alatamaha to protect the Sapelo set- 
lers who otherwise threaten to remove. I fear the post at St Savilla 
is broken up as my last advices mention but two or three Men re- 
maining there. From accounts Lt Clay has sent in from Fort Telfair 
at Beards Bluff, he has heard a number of Guns below & opposite to 
his Garrison which makes me apprehensive they have yet in contem- 

69 



plation some Stroke in force. They must have either a large Body 
fearful of no event or a party of Hunters. The former in our situation 
is most probable. There is so great a fresh at present that it is im- 
possible to cross the Alatamaha to attack them with any prospect of 
success & from the continued rains we have had there is a probability 
of its remaining high for sometime. Inclosed is also a commission 
sometime since sent me by your Excellency for a Mr. J. Morrell who 
is at present a resident of New Jersey & never received it. Capt. Johns- 
ton wishes another appointmt as soon as possible which your Ex- 
cellency will no doubt consider of. I have to request Copies of such 
Orders as yr Excelly hitherto may have issued or may hearafter issue 
to B[rig.] G[en.] Gunn [so that] my orders may not clash wit[h] 
them 

[Here several pages are cut from the book] 
I truly lament the dispute as it may injure the service of our Coun- 
try, but I cannot, my duty will not permit giving up the point. 

I do not like the Guns heard by Lieut. Clay; they were either fired 
by Hunters or a party in force, do keep spies out & send them to the 
Bluff & get Capt Way every now & then to call there; other intelli- 
gence by way of St Marys declares a number of Warriors out, who 
shaped their course for the Alatamaha. You will make the best dis- 
position of your Militia & think you had better Garrison all the Posts 
& get good Blockhouses in the different Forts, which in fact are 
much superior to the Forts themselves. The best construction will 
be for the Blockhouses to be Twenty feet to 25 feet in the Clear & two 
story high, the lower story 10 to 12 feet pitch the upper 6 to 8 feet, 
over jutted eight inches, inclosed with or on the opposite angles of 
a stockade; considering the Governors Orders they strictly should 
have been already erected & at the places pointed out by him; as it 
is you had better give me your sentiments on examination of the 
business & consulting the inhabitants. I have mentioned the southern 
post above Sapelo to the Governor & have no doubt it will be estab- 
lished, they may be supp[l]yed do be as careful as possible about the 
rations at all the Posts that we may be enabled to give a clare Acct 
inclosed is a line for Lieut Clay from his Father, do contrive it to 
him fe tell him one of my little Boys scribbled the Letter in the 
manner it is. 

Keep the spirits of the Horsemen up. Major Habersham assures 
me there can be no doubt of their pay & that orders are momently 
expected. 

I am Dr Col 
Your Obt Servt 
Jas Jackson 
Lieut Ck)l 
Danl Stewart 

70 



Sm Since my last writing to your Elxcellency I have visited the Fron- 
tiers of Effingham and Burke the former of which is in a defenceless 
state for near eighty miles, the Inhabitants having generally removed 
to the North side of Ogeeche and from the small respite we have had 
from Indian depredation the few remaining much of their Guard, and 
the Stations and Scouts neglected. I judged that if the Enemy should 
make another irruption that so unprepared a State would have a bad 
effect & ordered the posts mentioned in General Morrisons Letter to 
me a Copy of which I inclosed your Excellency to be immediately 
Garrisoned, my Judgement was not improper for last Monday Morning 
a Mr Tomberlin who planted a crop on Canoochie having crossed that 
River, was on his return waylayed by Two Indians, who to draw his 
Attention grunted like Hoggs; the Effect was as they wished. Tom- 
berlin halted & a Gun snapped at him, he then discovered the Indians 
& jumped to a Tree when putting his head to its side to take another 
look at them a Ball was shot through his Hatt close to his Temples, 
his dodging made the Indian suppose him dropped who ran to toma- 
hawk & scalp him. Tomberlin perceived him & let him advance to 
within Ten steps when he fired at the Indian who dropped his Gun 
put both hands to his Belly and bent himself almost double. Tomberlin 
is celebrated as a man of extraordinary resolution and one of the best 
marksmen in that County he says he fired at his Belly; there can be 
little doubt of his being severely wounded if not killed; the other 
Indian having his Gun loaded & Tomberlins Rifle empty, he was 
obliged to run for the Log he crossed the River on & whilst on it was 
fired at by the other Indian who shot him in the side very slightly. 
I went some distance from my rout in towards the River to see him 
but he was gone from home; his Wife shewed me the split shirt he 
had on which was shot through and the holes answered to the descrip- 
tion of the wound. I examined a little boy who was there at work 
with him particularly his account corresponded; he heard the Indians 
& the Guns but did not see the Savages or the Guns fired being on 
this side the River. Tomberlin he says was very bloody when he got 
over. I took the necessary steps to overtake the party by ordering 
scouts in different directions, but I belive they have failed in the at- 
tempt being in the spot & giving those directions prevented the alarm 
from being as mischievous as it otherwise might have proved & Tom- 
berlins conduct with the General belief of his having killed the Indian 
has had a good Effect. 

The Stations South of Ogechee which I have thought necessary to 
establish on the Effingham & Burke Frontier are 1st. at the Lake 
Situate in Washington County below the old Town some distance. 

This is a cover to Burke the Inhabitants of which on the North Side 
of Ogechee at the time General Morrison wrote me broke for four 
or five Miles in and some of them not yet returned. The Settlers on 

71 



the Forks of the Ohoopies having left their homes, leaving this part 
of Burke open to the Nation. 16 miles Down at Lewis's is another 
post & a good Blockhouse in Effingham. At Measles's Ferry also 
I do not like the Ground yet on account of its being a principal cross- 
ing place a third, a Fourth at Richardsons and a Fifth at Drury 
Jones's, all to be Garrisoned from Burke. A Sixth Post at Captn. Stephen 
Mills's ten miles out towards Canoochie a Seventh at James Thomas's 
plantation on Belchers Mill Creek, an Eighth at Major Nichels 
15 Miles from Ogeechee River and a Ninth at Birds Mill. I have 
ordered Blockhouses to be built at each of them on the principles of 
your Greneral order and to be Garrisoned as hereby Pointed out, I hope 
to meet your approbation. 

Could Forage and Provisions be procured on the Alatamaha a very 
Considerable saving might be made, and the Frontier Settlers be much 
better Secured by establishing Blockhouses on that river at about every 
ten or twelve miles distance. Forage would be wanted for five or six 
Horsemen at each Station for the purpose of Scouting to the Posts 
next them & pursue on the Indian trail when discovered. Eight or 
Nine of these Posts would be equal to the twenty now necessary for 
the Division, seven in Liberty two in Glynn one in Camden, altho 
two are Established by the Inhabitants, one one [sic^ in Chatham, 
Argeyle to Quiet the Inhabitants who march from the County four in 
Effingham as before pointed out, to be Garrisoned by that County 
four more in Effingham & one in Washington Garrisoned by Burke. 

Near 2 o'clock 

I have this moment reed, by Mr King your Order relative to the 
Establishing another Blockhouse in the Vicinity of Beards Bluff, an 
order which fatigued as as [sic] my Horses are I shall set off tomor- 
row or next day to put in Execution. I am clearly of opinion the more 
of those Posts on the Alatamaha the Better. I think of Placing it at 
Oswalds Bluff about ten Miles below Beards Bluff where the Party 
who stole Smiths Negroes & killed Gerardeaux crossed. 

Near 4 o'clock 

I have been once more impeded in the progress of my Letter by 
your own Communication of the 12th. by express relative to Genl. 
Twiggs march over the Oconee. 

It is to be lamented, and highly as I respect your Excellency my 
mention of it I hope will be pardoned, that some general Plan was not 
adopted & ordered into execution, & a few [?] Communication of that 
important subject made. My abilities I place out of the Question. My 
old Friends Clarke & Twiggs under whom I have with pleasure Served, 
I shall not hesitate to declare superior to myself, but surely if co- 
operation was the object the small talent of myself & the cooperation 
of my Division might have been consulted, and might have deserved 



72 



so much of your Excellencys attention as a communication under your 
hand of your real intentions. 

I have never failed in my Duty to you in Communication. This day 
for the first time I have been Honored with your Excellencys Signa- 
ture, at too late an hour to Cooperate any way material. Your Excel- 
lency may probably think me too free. I will be candid to say I have 
thought your Excellency too reserved. Your orders have been, & always 
shall be my guide, but orders I expect, to justify myself, as no Doubt 
Major Genl. Twiggs possesses. 

On my tour up the North side of Ogeechee expecting orders, I tried 
the Captains as I rode along how many Horsemen in each Company 
could be procured; they were few. No c[r]ops last year & poor Horses, 
but timely Notice and orders might have procured as many as would at 
least have formed a division. 

I shall move immediately to Liberty, & cause such proceedings to 
take place as I may suppose will induce the parties of Indians near 
the Alatamaha to suppose an intended march from this Quarter. 

I am Sir with the Highest respect 

Your Excellencys Obedt. Servt. 
Jas. Jackson 

Major Genl. 1st. Division 

Savannah June 15th 1793 
Sib By this conveyance you will receive a proportion of the Publick 
Arms allotted for my Division. You will please to forward to me a 
receipt for them by the first opportunity. 

I wish to hear from you respecting the situation of your County & 
to have a return of all the Men who have been on duty since the 
Alarm. 

I am Sir 
Yr 
Capt Johnston or 
Commg Officer of Camden County Militia 

Savannah June 18th 1793 
Dear Col I wrote you by Capt Brownson on Friday last, since which 
I have received one or two letters from you of an old date inclosing 
returns &c. By a General Order of the 7th instant I am directed to 
cause a Blockhouse to be built on the Alatamaha in the vicinity of 
Beards Bluff & another between Le Contes & that River for the pro- 
tection of the Sapelo Settlement. I shall order a Field Officers com- 
mand from Chatham to your assistance. Do get your Horse in order 
we shall want them to look at the ground. I wish you to think of a 
proper spot; the thought struck me that Oswalds bluff, I mean on 
this side would be as good as any but I shall not decide until I see 

73 



you as you are best acquainted with the grounds & crossing places 
on the River. 

Inclosed is the Division Order of yesterday relative to it & I beg 
you to see Messrs Files Couper & Mullryne Agents for the Contractor 
that everything may be in readiness for if the Troops gone over the 
Oconee should be unfortunate & we know not events every exertion 
for your County will be required. I have however great hopes of their 
success but we must be prepared for the worst. I will be out sometime 
this Week as soon as I can get the Men here in a train for marching. 

I am &3C. 

You had as well furnish agreeably to Brigade Orders Major Thomp- 
son with a copy of your returns; it does not interfere so far with 
my orders. 

Gent[lemen] I inclose you a Division Order of this day which I re- 
quest your immediate attention to. I expect the Chatham Militia to 
be at Captain Saunders on Tuesday next & that they will cross Ogeeche 
Ferry on Monday. 

I am Gentlemen 
Yr Most Obedt Servt 
Jas Jackson 

Major Genl 1st Division 
Georgia Militia 
Savannah June 17th 1793 
Mr S Files & Agents for 
the Contractor 

SiE Inclosed is a letter recommended to my care which I believe to 
be from Liberty County, as I know not but it may be of publick con- 
sequence I send it w[i]t[h] this by the post. 

Yr Orders of the 27th June & your communication of the 22d came 
to my hand on Saturday last. The former I shall obey as soon as I 
possibly can get the returns in from the 2d Brigade & the Glyn & 
Camden Regts of the 1st Brigade of my division with respect to the 
lessening the numbers of the men on duty your communication men- 
tions until further hostilities commence, this has happened. In the 
night of Sunday the 30th Ulto the Indians made an attempt to steal 
Capt Williams's Horses from under the care of his Horse Guard at 
St Savilla. The Guard was vigilant & fired on them in 10 Min[u]t[es] 
they were again seen & again fired on when they made a great noise 
& retired. Capt Williams pursued them next morning & found blood 
on the trail he seems confident some of them were wounded; this 
however is not the worst circumstance. I have a letter now before 
me sent by express last night, from Mr J Couper a respectable Mercht 



74 



in Sunbury directed to Dr Wood the Sheriff of Liberty with the fol- 
lowing unfortunate information "[Letter not quoted.] 

As it strikes me that there is little doubt of the authenticity of this 
information & that the War in consequence will be more general than 
ever I shall wait your further order on this head. 

Agreeably to your Excellys order for a post in the vicinity of Beards 
Bluff I examined personally the river Alatamaha but notwithstanding 
the repeated informat[ion] of numerous situations on that 
river Oswalds was the only spot where a stockade could possibly 
be erected & that totally surrounded by swamps impassable except in 
two places by Man or Horse & the situation itself so low that a com- 
mon Fresh would nearly overflow it. To have placed it from the river 
would have rendered it necessary to open a road from Capt Saunders's, 
a Work for one hundred prime Fellows for one Month; at the Bluff 
itself indeed, the post could have been established but there are no 
supplies but for the Continental troops & those short. I therefore fixed 
on a spot on the Doctors Creek about 13 Miles from Capt Saunders's 
towards B. Bluff & have directed Major Hammond to march as of this 
morning provided he is furnished with the necessary hands to erect 
a Blockhouse & stockade. I mean to Garrison it with Ways Troop & 
have ordered a Six pounder to be conveyed there for the purpose of 
alarming Capt William at St Savilla on the discovery of a Trail as 
well as the Beards Bluff station & the Settlements. Williams in case 
of alarm will move up the So[uth] side of the river whilst Way will 
follow on the trail. If the trifling assistance allowed by the President 
is all the protection Georgia is to receive the Southern Counties must 
break; the 100 'Horse are not more than sufficient for their protection, 
if adequate to it & I recommend it to your Excellency to continue 
Ways Williams's & the Camden Troop in actual Service, with those 
and proper Scouts which I am now engaging; if your Excelly should 
think fit the Militia may be dispensed with until more serious times 
which i however feel will shortly commence. It will be a stimulus to 
fitting Characters if the leaders of them were allowed the pay of Spies 
& Scouts also. Two of those in Liberty County equal perhaps to any 
in the State will engage on those terms; the confidence the people 
have in them makes their service an object, a Mr Warren on my 
promising to recommend it to you has accepted & has 5 men with 
him, nearly' equal to himself for Canoochie & a Mr Johnston waits 
my answer on this subject for the Alatamaha; those two Characters 
every body recommends & they are fully capable of the double Service. 
I have promissed them rations & Forage until I hear again from you 
on the subject. ' 

I am Sir Yr Excellys Ob Servt 
His Excelly the Governor. 



75 



Savannah July 11th 1793 
Mt dear Colonel I received your favor by Mr Oswald & as you ap- 
prove of his having the Arms I shall procure them for him. I think 
that his situation, if he has fortitude to hold it, may be equal to an 
additional Station. 

Do let me hear as soon as possible what forwardness the post at 
Doctors Creek is in & whether Major Hammond has a probability of 
finishing it during his tour that I may know whether another de- 
tachmt is necessary from Chatham or not. See Capt Saunders as soon 
as he arrives & use your influence to procure Johnston. Capt. White- 
head I suppose informed you I had engaged Warren; the division 
order of the day, inclosed will point out the mode of alarming the 
Settlements. 

The killing the Indians to the So[uth] & the Information of those 
in Florida will require all your vigilance. If you see Major Hammond 
remember me to him & request his writing me I have been so busy 
& this opportunity is so hurried that I cannot write him at present. 
Do write me yourself by the 1st Vessel about the Arms. Your droggers 
[droghers ?] are so small that they come & go without being noticed. 

I am Dr Col 
Yr Obed 
Lt Col D Stewart. 

Savannah July 20th 1793 
De Genl Inclosed is a copy of a Genl Order to me & a Division order 
in consequence; do let me have a return as soon as possible of the 
men in actual service in your Brigade signed by your Brigade In- 
spector. 

I also wish as soon as possible in addition to your making me a re- 
turn of the men in actual Service, that you would give me a Brigade 
return; it is now three Months since I issued Orders for one. I suppose 
you have been delayed by the Effingham regimt. I have never yet 
reced a single return of any detachment on duty altho I so ardently 
expressed my wishes to the Officers to receive them; the Ist Brigade 
has pretty regularly furnished them. 

Yrs &c &c 
Brig Genl Morrison 

Savannah July 21st 1793 
Db Genl Various have been the reports of the reasons for your re- 
turn but from whatever cause it originated I have ever expressed 
myself that no blame could rest on your Shoulders. The vigilance & 
attention I know you possessed of will always prevent a possibility of 
Imputation where you command at least with those who know you 
as well as I do & who are the most capable of Judging. 

76 



Mr Garvin mentions to me that you had some expectation of going 
a 2d time; if so, a diversion could be easily formed from this divi- 
sion to meet you somewhere in the Nation. We have 3 Troops of Horse 
tolerably well mounted & consisting of 150 men & upwards now in actual 
service. I have recommended it to the Govr to keep them so; those 
could be drawn to a point & be augmented to 300 by volunteers from 
the Division; the Officers in my eye to command: Stewart of Liberty 
& S Hammond of this County; the cool bravery of the former fe the 
equal determination & experience of the latter woud ensure success. 
A Brigd might be appointd to command but the number woud not be 
sufficient. If you marched with about 700 added to those 300 when 
you formed a Junction, the Nation could have no force to oppose you 
with any probability of injury. Swords should be immediately procured 
by Governmt for at least 300 of the best Horse which would form two 
powerful columns to charge their flanks & must indisputably give you 
decided superiority. I have been thus particular because I fear an un- 
fortunate accident the other day in killing some Indians at St Marys 
coming with peace talks to Mr Seagrove has put a total period to any 
prospect of peace; the talks I have inclosed to the Governor. 

Should the War Continue & Congress do nothing decisive our next 
Legislature will have a deal for consideration. You know my senti- 
ments have always been opposed to Yazoo measures but self preserva- 
tion with States as Individuals is the supreme law. I would not hesi- 
tate to sanction the settling the Okmulgees promissing 500 Acres to 
every settler to receive their Grants after 3 years possession; this 
could be done under the necessity of posts on the Okmulgee & the 
Settlemts to subsist them & as the N York treaty has been broken 
by them; in Justice the Talassee County ought to be deemed ours; 
it is the opinion Noly [Northwardly ?] that Congress will be called 
before the day the Constitution appoints which will give that Body 
an opportunity of judging, those however are my private sentiments 
communicated in a Friendly way to you & may be improved on; it is 
certain the Creeks have not complied with a single article of that 
treaty. I still hold the settling of the Yazoos bad policy as it would 
hem the Indians in & compel them to fight; the settling the Okmulgee 
would drive them farther from us & be an effective protection to a 
considerable part of the State & add considerably to its population. 

Wishing to hear from you as soon as convenient. 

I am Dr Genl 

If your expedition goes on & you approve of my plan, Garvin & Akin, 
the latter to be a pilot for Col Stewart should be taken into pay. 

Since writing the inclosed Mr Townsend is come in from the Nation 
& his accounts prevent the forming any opinion until we hear again 
from thence. I fear the worst but endeavour to keep hope alive. I send 
his statement to the Governor who no doubt will shew it to you. Mr 

77 



Garvin can give you a full account of what T. says. I really think 
some of those people should be taken into publick pay to be ready for 
the worst. 

The people in Camden are in a starving situation — starving & cut- 
ting each other throats. I am confid[en]t that some of H Os [?] 
agents have been breeding all the mischiefs existing there. I have 
nothing to say & am determined I will not on either side. I have 
hinted to the Governor to let the remaining Indians confined to the 
Southwd go. Four of them have already escaped. Townsend will go up 
with them. 

July 23d 1793 at Savannah 
Dr Sib Your favor by Serjt Lyon was reced. I did not mean to cen- 
sure you when I wrote the line from Capt Saunders's but to induce you 
to a vigilance respectg the Arms in your possession, for even the 
Screws will be required of you again or an account how they were 
lost or destroyed. I at the same time wished to shew you how neces- 
sary it was to have every thing in the best order & to be prepared for 
the Brigade Inspector at all times; as it is, his return cannot well be 
altered but I shall not object to it if he thinks his duty will permit 
him. 

The Musquets you want shall be sent you by the first Vessell with 
a number of powder horns. 

"What I meant by your exertions to get the men armed was to em- 
ploy your men as Blacksmiths or the trades they might be of assisting 
in the accoutering & discharging them for the time so at Work from 
other duty; in this manner in the Year 1781 I armed all the Dragoons 
of my Legion 3 Troops with caps & Swords & clothed them also in 
Buckskin without one sixpence expence to the State Coats & overalls, 
made all my Boots & even Spurs, Guns & pistols excepted, I did every 
thing within my own Corps; from old Saws & Hoops I made my Swords 
& from the raw hides my Boots, taking them myself. 

With respect to pay, the men must have patience. Major Habersham 
has wrote you on this head; as I have all along mentioned there can 
be ultimately no doubt, but the custom house is bare & no supplies 
have come on; the pay is now an object for them to stay a little while 
contented. The Contractor must supply you regularly or forfeit his 
contract. 

I am &c 
Capt Way Liberty Horse 

Major Habersham has this moment called with letters from Genl 
Knox; your swords I applied for are coming on. Do Scout towards 
B [card's] Bluff; the late unfortunate affair to the Southward requires 
all our vigilance. 



78 



Savannah July 31st 1793 
Db Colonel I wrote you a few days since by one of Capt Ways Troop. 
From my not hearing again from you before this I suppose the alarm 
has proved a false one. 

Mr Crofts whom I yesterday saw in Town informed me of some un- 
pleasant news respectg your Domestics; if well founded this will re- 
quire all your vigilance; an internal enemy will be far worse than a 
foreign one much more so should a proportion of the Citizens which 
is probable may shortly be the case be called to a distance from home. 
The patrole law should be strictly put into operation & none but tried 
Negroes be allowed to keep Guns. I have been told there have been 
some examinations taken respectg this; if so, do send them to me im- 
mediately as I shall go for Augusta on Monday Morning & wish to lay 
them before the Governor. 

I am Dr Col &c. 
Lt Col Stewart 
Liberty 

Savannah July 31st 1793 
Sm, Mr Files called on me respectg your complaint of the want of 
provisions & forage for 3 days at Drs Creek. He alledges & I find it 
to be the case that it was in consequence of his Waggon being detained 
on the road owing to the Driver & the Guards getting to the publick 
Stores; it certainly is your duty to furnish a guard & it is no excuse 
to the men composing it that the Waggon is 1, 2 or 3 days coming to 
the Station; they are then as they every day are only on duty & it 
ought to make no difference where they do it provided they have pro- 
visions for themselves & forage for their Horses which the Commissy 
must supply them with. Do not let them behave so in future. Your 
Horse Guard can also take charge of 2 or 3 Beef Cattle; you are at a 
distance & many little things must be done among yourselves I hope 
you will be pretty well supplied. Be very attentive to your Horses & 
chear up your men. I feel confident that they will soon have a long 
march before them & a fair oppy to distinguish themselves. I am told 
some of their times are out; they'l have little to talk of when they 
get home if they quit now & run the risk of losing their pay. I should 
impute their leaving you to other motives; a fear that their courage 
was not of the Sterling kind. 

I suppose the alarm provd a false one. 

I am Sir &c&c 
Capt Way 

Savannah July 24th 1793 
Db Sib Your favor I received last Saturday requesting my consider- 
ing Major Nichel as Commanding Officer of Elffingham County until 

79 



an enquiry into your conduct, as I know of no misdeeds of yours as 
an Officer; were I inclined to comply with your desire it would be 
impossible for me; a charge of a military nature must be exhibited 
against you & you must be tried previously to any suspension, & resig- 
nation in this period of alarm is totally impossible. You have therefore 
nothing in your power but to discharge your duty well & faithfully 
as an Officer which I have not doubt you will do until times become 
more peaceable. 

What can be the meaning that I have never yet received a return 
of a single man on duty from your County? Let me have it immediately 
from both Battallions of all that are out. 

I am &c 
Lt Col T. Wylly 

Effingham 

Send me also a return of your Regimt without delay; that is, the 
amount of every man in both battallions on duty or off. See likewise 
the patrole law put into strict execution. 

Savannah July 26th 1793 
Db Sie I received your favor by your Brother & agreeable to your re- 
commendation I have appointed him & Mr McDonald as Spies in your 
County. Captain Burnet must occasionally let Mr McDonald who is to 
scout up the little Settilla have two or three men as you must let your 
Brother have from your post & they must be constantly out giving you 
or Capt Burnet immediate information of sign of Indians when dis- 
covered. Before they can receive the pay they must appear before a 
Magistrate of your County who must muster them on Oath something 
like what follows 
Georgia 
Glyn County 

Personally appeared before me one of the Justices for the said 
County Farr Williams & Britton McDonald who being duly sworn do 
declare that they have engaged as Spies in and for the said County 
to act as such during the present alarm & that they and each of them 
will do the duty allotted to them to the best of their knowledge and 
ability. 

Signed 
F W 
B Mc 
Sworn & mustered on 
Oath this [blank] day 
before me 

As soon as this is sworn to let there be two Copies taken by the 
Magistrate and send them on to me. 

I am surprized at the Contractors. I hope they will supply you better 

80 



in future or I shall myself complain of them; let me hear by every 
opportunity. 

I am Dr Sir 
Yr very Obedt Servt 
Jas Jackson 

Major Genl 1st Division 
Capt Wm Williams 

Savannah July 29th 1793 
Sib I have this moment reced your Excellys Genl Orders of the 13 
& 27th inst as well as yours requirg my attendance at the Governmt 
House on the 8th of next month. Your Excy must have mistaken that 
part of my letter which respected the escape of the Indian prisoners; 
the Officer comm[andin]g at Colerain never had them in charge & of 
course cannot be made answerab[le] for their escape. They have ever 
since their capture been confined at Fort St Tammany a Fed Garri- 
son under the immediate orders of a Lt Nichol whose prisoners I have 
been informed he considers them & that it is doubtful whether he will 
give them up without the order of the Fed[eral] Comm[andan]t or 
the Agt of Ind Affairs. I shall require Capt Johnstons making a de- 
mand of them. This makes me at a loss what to do until I hear again 
on the Subject as the Officer at Coleraine if arrested & tried never 
can be accountable. The Court of Inq[uir]y I shall immediately order 
but am afraid shall be at a loss for Officers to hold it as soon as I could 
wish; the two Counties of G[lynn] & C[amden] being on constant 
duty & the latter far from being arrangd as I wrote your Excelly in 
my last. I again submit to your Excy whether if the Indians are 
delivd up to my order, considering that they are Cussitahs our warm- 
est Friends they had not better be sent home with Townsend. If of- 
fensive operations take place is it not better to divide the Nation & 
get a proportion in our favor? An express last night from Col Stewart 
informs me of 2 trails discovered 1 at B. Bluff, the other at Drs Creek; 
the advantage of the latter post is already felt. Ways Troop was in pur- 
suit before the Settlements or inner Stations were alarmed. I have 
sanguine expectations of their being come up with but I have my 
doubts if they do not prove to be the desperate Gang of Negroes I men- 
tioned to your Excy who killed Dr St John & who may have been 
joined by runaways in Lib[erty] County as the remainder in the 
number attacked escaped the pursuit. 

Under the order of the 13th I shall continue the 3 Troops of Horse 
& such Stations only as I may judge absolutely necessary & shall be 
at Augusta at the time required. 

I am Yr Excellys &c& 
His Excelly 
E Telfair esqr 

81 



Savannah July 29th 1793 
Sib I have received your line informing me of the trail discovered 
by Lt Girardeau. I yesterday reced your letter by Cornet Smithers 
informing me of the reasons why the Post at Drs Creek was left by 
the Troop generally, an act which altho altogether unmilitary & un- 
warrantable is mitigated by your representations. The Agents are 
written to by the present opportunity & I hope you will have no need 
of further complaints against them. 

I have no doubt of your doing every thing proper & I beg you to 
consider yourself fully under the direction of Lt Col Stewart until 
further orders. 

I am Sir 
Yr Obedt Servt 
Capt Way 

You must again take possession of the Fort at Doctors Creek & Mr 
Files must lodge a sufficient Quantity of Forage for your whole Troop. 

Savannah July 29th 1793 
Sib, I have received such repeated complaints from the different 
detachments on duty with respect to supplies that I shall shortly be 
obliged to lay a formal complaint myself before Major Habersham 
as the U States Agent against you; let me beg the Gent[lemen] con- 
cerned with you as well as yourself to prevent this for the conse- 
quence will be a stoppage of resources to the Contractor or his Agents. 
Men on duty cannot & must not suffer for rations or the Horses for 
Forage, the want of Forage to the latter is as bad as the want of 
provisions for the former; disable a Dragoon Horse fe the service 
of his Rider is lost. 

Capt Way informs me that in consequence of a want of supplies 
he was compelled to leave the post at Drs Creek with the greatest 
part of his Troop which for 3 days subsisted on Whortleberries. Capt. 
Williams writes that his Horses have been without Forage a con- 
siderable time & are exceedingly reduced, almost rendered unfit for 
service; those charges are of an important nature. Major Hammond 
also complained. Such neglects disgust Men & injure the publick 
Safety in consequence. 

I have every wish & disposition to avoid slight charges & to render 
your contract as easy with you as possible; hoping to hear nothing 
further on the subject. 

I remain Sir 
Yr most hble Servt 
Mr Files 
Contractors Agent 



82 



Sib Since my return every thing has been quiet in this Division. On 
the eighth instant another attempt was made at St Savilla by a party 
of Indians to steal the Horses. Capt Williams was on his Guard & 
informs me that there is a certainty of one of them being killed or 
very severely wounded, as in the place he fell, near a pint of blood 
with his bag of paint knife &c were found. He writes me that his men 
grow restless on account of pay & want of necessary accoutrements 
such as swords &c. Capt Way has also wrote me on the same subject. 
I sincerely wish your Excellency would permit those sent here for the 
100 Horse to be divided & a proportion to be allotted for those Troops. 
I reced a line from Capt Meriwether inclosing a Warrant on the 
treasury on account of my Att[endin]g the Council of War. 

I am 
His Excelly E Telfair 

Sept 28 1793 
SiB I have received your letter with that of Major Hammond giving 
me a description of the unhappy state of your County. Would to God, 
matters could be compromised and all party work at an end. 

As the contents of your letters are of a very serious nature I shall 
inclose them to his Excellency the Governor & request his orders re- 
specting them. It would be impossible for me to order Men from an- 
other regiment for the purposes you mention of quelling Mutineers 
without those orders & for the propriety of which step it is not my 
province to Judge. 

As Lt Col of Camden County it is the duty of every Officer in it 
to obey your directions unless where they immediately militate with 
the orders of a Superior Officer & they are liable to arrest & to be 
cashiered in case of disobedience. The arresting the Officers com- 
posing the Court of Inquiry was illegal; they were on publick duty 
& free from arrests during such duty. The Governor will no doubt 
notice it. 

As I can write you nothing fully until I hear from the Governor 
I can only assure you that I shall support you in all proper proced- 
ings in the Military line as Lt Col of Camden County. 

I am Sir &c. 
Lt Col Carr 

Savannah Sept 30th 1793 
His Excelly the Governor 

Sib I inclose your Excelly a copy of a Letter from Lt Col Carr with 
sundry papers sent me therewith. You will observe from them that 
ye unhappy division still continue in Camden. Not knowing if Col 
Carr had receiv'd orders from yourself respecting the Coleraine Troop 
& having no power over Civil Magistrates who appear to have pre- 

83 



vented the Court of Inquiry ordered by you by legally arresting the 
Officers ordered for that duty, thought it best to give no immediate 
order myself but to refer the whole to you & wait your directions. 
There is no intelligence from the Frontier but of two Horses being 
stolen on last Saturday Night Week at Coleraine supposed by Indians. 

I am Yr Excellys &c&c 

Savannah Nov 1st 1793 
Sir I do myself the honor to inclose your Excelly the proceedings 
of the Court of Inquiry in Camden & the nomination of Field Officers 
for the Glynn Regiment. My other proceedings in consequence of your 
Orders will be best explained by the copies of my orders & the in- 
formation herewith sent. As much as could be done by any Officer 
in obedience of your Orders consistent with the safety of the Fron- 
tier & considering the distracted State of Camden County I flatter 
myself has been executed by myself. The tour of duty has been un- 
pleasant. I found the Citizens of Camden so divided that scarcely two 
persons of opposite parties related the same fact alike I therefore as 
I informed your Excellency I should do formed the Court of Inquiry 
of two Officers from Glynn. The Information of Captain Dawson was 
corroborated by Major Abner Hammond who was at St Augustine when 
I issued the Order respecting the Coleraine Garrison & overtook me 
on my way down the River St Marys; this Information induced me to 
appoint Mr Hunter to its command & to give Mr McGillis the com- 
mand of the Scout. The other Inhabitants are generally on the Islands. 
The Men would not have served under other Officers and the break- 
ing up that Troop altogether would have left that Frontier in a weak 
State. There are indeed some who call themselves another Troop 
but not being recognized as the Coleraine Troop is by your orders 
I could not notice them. The Commissioned Officers of the Coleraine 
Troop are arrested & I wait your Excellencys charges to have them 
tried as they are arrested by your order it is most proper they should 
be exhibited by yourself. 

If any deviation has taken place I beg your Excellency to believe 
that it has been unavoidable & the latitude I have taken, if your Ex- 
cellency be properly informed must strike you as being indispensibly 
necessary for the safety of the Inhabitants. 

I arrived here last evening & dispatch this by express to reach your 
Excellency by the meeting of the House 

and am 

Yr Excellepcys 

most Obedt humble Ser 
His Excellency 
the Governor. 



84 



Savannah July 20th 1794 
Sib Prom the anxiety you expressed to me whilst here & the subse- 
quent line on the road to hurry Scot[t]s being sent off I have thought 
it best to request Capt Jones who will have the honor of handing you 
this to take charge of the detachmt of Dragoons ordered for his es- 
cort. I wrote you the inclosed immediately after you had gone for 
Augusta. Capt Jones has greatly relieved me on the Subject of it by 
offering a spare horse for him & to furnish the men himself as far 
as Augusta where I have assured him your Excelly will refund him 
his expences & either discharge his detachmt by a Counter order to 
my division Order or properly supply for the remainder of his tour 
of duty. 

When the consequences to the publick which Scot[t]s attendance 
at Wilkes Court is certainly of is taken into view I hope my Sanc- 
tioning Captn Jones taking charge of the small command will not be 
censured; indeed there are reports that an attempt will be made to 
rescue him. 

Will your EJxcelly be so good as to let me know to whom I must 
apply for supplies should like cases or those of necessity arise. 

I am Sir 

Yr Excellys Obed 
The Governor 

Sib From Official accounts given to me by James Seagrove esquire 
it appears that the Creek Nation is much divided & that the one half 
is bent for War. The ostensible reason for their resentment is Gen- 
eral Clarkes settling over the Oconee. Mr Seagrove is uneasy lest the 
execution of the order of his Excellency the Governor to establish 
a post at Doctors Town which appears to be in the Creek territory 
should add to the number of our enemies in the Nation as it might 
appear to the Indians as a corresponding step to the advance of Genl 
Clarke & a system of our Government for their inquiry. 

For those reasons I am induced to advise a delay of the establish- 
ment until you hear again from his Excellency on the subject & to 
whom I shall send a copy of this line. 

It is needless for me to make any observations respecting the neces- 
sity there is for vigilance to an Officer of your experience. I think 
from the accounts Mr Seagrove has the Indians may be daily expected 
on the Frontiers; the heavy rains however so far are in our favor 
as they will be cautious in crossing any large Water Course. 

I am &c 
Capt Armstrong. 

I will thank you to communicate the contents of this line to Col 
Stewart & to whom I should write had I time. 



85 



Savannah July 28 1794 
Sib I have the honor to inclose you copies of two letters to me from 
Jas Seagrove esqr & a line to Capt Armstrong from me in consequence 
thereof. I told Mr Seagrove I had no authority to issue orders to 
Capt Armstrong much more to interfere with orders from you; so far 
I flatter myself yr Excelly will not deem improper, for the colour the 
step might wear to the President of the U. States consid[erin]g the 
advance of Genl Clarke I thought would induce your Excelly to delay 
the post until a representation could be made to the Governmt of the 
U States or the Indians or until some hostilities on their side should 
take place. 

I suppose Mr Seagroves object in writing me was his wish to ex- 
press himself previous to leaving this State fe the impossibility of his 
hearing from you previous to that taking place; he is gone for N York. 

I wrote you by Capt Jones who I hope is safe arrived with his 
prisoner. 

I am Sir &c 
Yr Excellys Obt Servt 
Govr Matthews. 

Savannah 22d August 1794 
Sir Your Excellencys two letters of the 2d & 8th instant reached me 
last Monday. I am happy that you impute my advice to Captain Arm- 
strong to its true motive. I had no other object than the interest of 
my Country but I confess I am much surprized from your Excellys 
Information at the Agents representations. I agree with you that no 
Officer of that nature should have it in his power to mutilate the 
State & as a Citizen of Georgia I hope she will never permit it. 

Ensign Van Voorhies died previous to your orders reaching Savan- 
nah & I held an immediate consultation with Major Habersham; the 
anxiety you expressed for the Speedy establishm[en]t of the Station 
at Carneys Cowpen & your information in your letter to Major Haber- 
sham of the 14th instant that Lt Col Gaither had ordered Artisans 
to that place induced us to suppose that there was no time to lose but 
as Ensign Voorhies was no more & all the men of his detachment 
fit for duty amounting to a Serjts command we thought it most ad- 
vantageous to the Services to let the convalescents take charge of the 
Magazine & to order Serjt Smith with a Corporal & 12 privates to 
Turtle river to form a Junction there with a Subaltern two noncom- 
missioned Officers & thirteen privates of the Glynn County Militia 
for the purpose of putting your orders to Ensign Voorhies into Exe- 
cution. The Serjt sailed on Wednesday. Copies of my letter to Lt 
Col Burnet & my order to Smith are inclosed & I hope will meet the 
Sanction of your Excellencys approbation; if I have erred it has been 
altogether owing to a Wish of forwarding your Excellencys intentions 

86 



ae expressed to Major Habersham Ensign Voorhies & myself. 

The British Frigate Quebec has been in our river for some days. 
I was down at Tybee yesterday with Major Habersham to look at the 
Works & Lighthouse; the former on Cockspur Island are far from a 
State of forwardness & I fear will not be completed with the Sum 
at present allowed for this port, a great part of the Work first done 
is to be made anew. 

I am Sir with respect 
Yr Excellencys Obedt Servt 
Jas Jackson 

Major Genl 1st Division 
Georg[ia] Militia 
His Excellency 
Governor Matthews 
Having no other opportunity I send this by post. 

Savannah Oct 16th 1795 
Sib, Inclosed is an extract of a letter written to me by Brigadier 
Genl Morrison with the copy of an Affidavit of Benjn Kitchen, like- 
wise the extract of a letter from B Genl Irvine to M Genl Twiggs in- 
closed to me by the last mentioned officer. 

I have thought it proper to forward this intelligence by Water as 
a Vessel is just Sailing for Philadelphia & I understand the Govr is 
not at Augusta, which circumstances added to the delay of the Post 
might otherwise prevent this disagreeable information from reaching 
you for a considerable period. The frontier is in a state of Alarm & 
I fear many of the settlers will break. I have flattered the Midway 
settlement, one of the richest in this State and mentioned in Kitchens 
affidavit with the prospect of support from the Northn Army as we 
understand that a peace has been concluded between the U States & 
the Northern Indians. It is highly unfortunate for our lower settle- 
ments that whether the fault lays with the Whites or Indians retalia- 
tion for losses by the latter is always made on them & what makes 
the case more hard is that the Indians are never injured or disturbed 
by those Settlers. 

I have the honor to be &c. 

Jas Jackson 
Major Genl 
Savannah Oct 16th 1795 

The Secry War 
U States 

Savann 16th Oct 1795 
Dr Colonl I have this moment received further accounts of the In- 
dians & altho from want of an opportunity I suppose my former line 

87 



will go by the same conveyance I think it proper to write again to you. 
Genl Morrison writes to me that a letter from Timothy Barnard 
to Capt Harrison mentions that a large Body of Indians were pre- 
pared to set out for the Frontiers to take back the Negroes they had 
given up; that they would first hunt about the Saw Mills, from thence 
on the head of the Canoochie & from thence go for the rice Planta- 
tions. It will be necessary to keep a vigilant watch for them. I cannot 
think the Nation is generally concerned but rather suppose what is 
asserted that the Indians out are the Cheehaws & others of the old 
Gang & which Kinnard wished punished some Years since I have 
ever been of opinion that we shall have no peace until that is the 
case. I have not heard one word from the Governor but understand 
that he is up at the Goose ponds. I shall this day write the Secry at 
War U States the information I have received & hope that a part of 
the Northern Army will be ordered immediately on to this State. 

As I cannot as I before mentioned think the body of the Nation 
concerned I flatter myself the Inhabitan[ts] Southerly will not break 
until they at least hear further on this business. 

I am Dr Col 
Lt Col Stewart 

Liberty County 
Gent[lemen] The inclosed copy or extract of a letter from Genl 
Irvin to Genl Twiggs will convince you of the necessity of filling up 
the vacancies in the Militia, as the Indians in all probability may be 
daily expected on the Frontier of your & Liberty County. 

I am &c. 
18 Oct 1795 
Any two or more Magistrates of Militia Distric[t] 

County Mcintosh 

Savannah Oct 18th 1795 
Db Genl Your letter of the 10th reached me but yesterday & I for- 
wardd an extract of it to the Secry of War. I have not reced one line 
from the Governor & can therefore give no particular directions. I like 
the steps you have taken and advise you to strive to prevail with the 
Inhabitants of Montgomery to stand their ground I think we shall 
have assistance from the Northern Army as a peace has certainly taken 
place with the Northern Indians it has certainly been an unfortunate 
business, be the fault with the Wliites or Indians. We must however 
make the best of it. I do not believe the Inhabitants will be fond of 
marching from their homes any where until the Election is over as 
they suspect it has been done for certain Electioneering purposes; it 
will be necessary however to be prepared to assist should any serious 
attack be made. I expect a break to the Southward but much doubt 
if the people on this side Ogeechee would cross that river just now 

88 



at any rate. 

If you could raise a small scout of Horse to shew themselves among 
the Inhabitants & return before the Election it would be well & I ad- 
vise you to try once more to recruit the Men for Milligans station. 

I am Dear Genl &c 
Brig Genl Morrison 

Savannah October 19th 1795 
Dear Colonel, Your favor by Captain Jones with the Letters from 
Mr. Barnard to Mr. Seagrove reached me this morning. Major Haber- 
sham and myself agreed to break the Seals of the latter and a Copy of 
Barnards Letter Captain Jones will hand you. It appears by it that 
the Indians had no intention of plundering your County and that the 
report of a Letter from Barnard to Harrison was to cloak the wicked 
transaction. God knows how it may turn out, but it is alledged in some 
respectable Letters that Electioneering purposes occasioned it; if so. 
Good God what can be thought of our Depravity? I can Scarce believe 
it and yet I have it from respectable authority. 

I have sent you by Captain Jones Six weight of Powder. If you are 
in great want you may have some more when you may Judge proper 
to apply for it. 

The accounts for Militia Services were Delayed here so long that 
they arrived late in the Session at the war office and a change of the 
Secretary of that Department taking place after their arrival accounts 
for their not being discharged; exclusive of this some of the vouchers 
as I understood were deficient, but Major Habersham has this morn- 
ing informed me that the money is actually on the road. 

You can do a great deal as to keeping the People from breaking 
and in persuading them to do Duty; indeed I fear that Self preserva- 
tion will oblige them to it. I sincerely wish however that there may 
be no necessity for it. Barnard may have influence; you observe that 
he has sent out runners and that he says those determined for war 
are resolved to take Satisfaction where the injury was committed. 

I am Dear Colonel with regard 
Your Most Obedt. Servt. 
Jas. Jackson 

Major Genl. 1st. Division 
Lt. Col. Danl. Stewart 

Commanding the Militia 
of Liberty County. 

Savannah October 19th 1795 
Sm, I conceive it to be my Duty to inform you, that having received 
a Letter dated the 18th. instant, a copy of which is inclosed, from Lt. 
Colonel Stewart, accompanied by two Letters brought by the Indian 

89 



traders to the Creek Nation arrived at Beards Bluff, Major Habersham 
and myself thought it proper to break the Seals and examine the Con- 
tents as Mr. Seagrove was not in Georgia and the Major thought the 
Letters ought to be forwarded to the war office. I have the honor to 
Inclose you the Copies of those Addresses. From Colonel Stewarts 
Letter you will perceive the unfortunate situation of our Frontier, men 
worn out with repeated attacks and not paid for their Services. 

I understand that the money is arrived or on its way to Satisfy 
them. Should it be so, you will be Convinced of the Necessity of an 
application of a part of the Sum immediately to the Militia of Lib- 
erty, Mcintosh, Glynn and Camden. If the whole arrears cannot be 
paid up, a Moiety may Serve to keep expectation alive and be an In- 
ducement to exertion which I fear will be too much wanted on the 
present unfortunate occasion. 

I have not had the honor of a line from you but remain ready to 
obay your Commands, the steps I have taken are those merely of 
placing the respective Counties of the first Brigade on their guard. 

I am Sir with due respect 
Your obedt. Servant 
Jas. Jackson 
Major Genl. 1st Division 
of Georgia Militia. 
His Excellency 
George Mathews 
Governor &c. of Georgia 

Sir I reced your letter datd 20th by Capt Burnet. I think there is a 
necessity to keep a good lookout on your frontier; a copy of your 
line I shall send to the Govr next post. I wrote addressed to Lt Col 
Burnet or Commg Officer of G[lynn] County by Major Wright who 
insisted that he was the Commanding Officer; this, having no report 
I could not decide on. I advise harmony on the present occasion as 
Officers between you. You will find from the inclosed extract & copy 
of an examination that your intelligence from Beards Bluff was not 
altogether straight, altho I do not like the burning the Fort at Car- 
neys Cowpen. Yet there is somewhat surprizing that they should let 
the White Man pass whilst they were burning it without troubling 
him. 

Every assistance in my power shall be afforded the County & I beg 
you not to break. I have written to the Governor respecting the 
So[uthern] Frontier & to the Secry of War of U. S. I have under- 
stood that the pay for former Services is on the road. 

I am Dr Col 

Your Mst Obed Servt 
Lt Col Burnet 

I have without Orders given your Brother 10 Wt Powder for the 

90 



use of the Frontiers. I hope it will be taken good care of; please to 
shew this line to Major Wright. 

Sir I had the honor of inclosing you copies of Letters from Govr 
Blunt & T Barnard to Mr Seagrove which Major Habersham & myself 
thought it necessary to open by the last Post; since that period young 
Mr Barnard who came express has arrived in Town & delivered me 
the now inclosed address from his Uncle to yourself. Why he did not 
send it with the others unless it be as he says an intention of going 
for Augusta which he after declined is rather strange. You will receive 
it by the Post as I have met with no earlier opportunity. I thought 
it prudent as he had given over the idea of going to you to take his 
examination on Oath, a copy of which is also inclosed. 

Col Burnet writes me from Glynn that the Fort at Carneys Cowpen 
has been burnt within a few days by the Indians, but what is un- 
accountable is that his Brother who came to me with the letter de- 
clared they did not attempt to injure a White Man who passed whilst 
they were burning it. He who is a Captn in the Glyn[n] battallion also 
informs me that the Settlers on the Main as there is no Garrison 
at Carneys are much alarmed as they conceive the post at Doctors 
Town to be no security to them. I promised to inform you of this & 
as he complained much of the want of ammunition & the almost im- 
possibility of procuring it & it is extremely scarce in this place I or- 
dered him 10 Wt. I have also given Col. Stewart 6 Wt. of powder & 
a promise of a little more. Six (6) Six Weight to Screven County over 
Ogeechee & 6 to Capt Watts company of Montgomery, merely to pre- 
vent their breaking thinking it of greater consequence to the State 
to supply the powder & prevent the Frontiers from breaking than to 
save the powder & let them break. We had some apprehensions some 
little time since of the Negroes rising which altho there were grounds 
to believe some intentions of that nature existed, yet I did not think 
the proofs of such consequence as to trouble you with it. This is one 
reason of the scarcity of powder; the Corporation having enforced 
the law & purchased up most of the powder retailing to prevent the 
Negroes from purchasing, those are the reasons which have induced 
me to deliver the powder as well as 10 Wt for Bryan County which 
I had ordered whilst the Negroe alarm continued. 

Not having been at home the former part of the Year & having had 
no reports of the state of Brigades & their Battallions, the Commg 
Officer of the first Brigade being also absent, I am at a loss to know 
the Commg Officers of Counties & find that disputes exist in some 
& that there are no Field Officers in others. If there should be any 
returns in the Adjutant Genls Office which can throw light on thla 
subject I should be happy to be informed. 

I am Sir with due respect 
Yr Excellys &cfec 
His ESccelly the Gott 

91 



Db Colonel I shall leave this the Day after tomorrow for Louisville; 
I know not who bears the eldest Commission in the first Brigade, your- 
self, or Col. Tatnall. I believe yourself, but that makes no Difference, 
as he will also set off for the Legislature on Saturday; the command 
of the Brigade then unquestionably will lay with yourself, and as such 
I address you. 

There are grounds to suppose some Hostilities may take place within 
the Limits of your Command, as they have already commenced in the 
upper Parts of the State. Your Vigilance and Attention, so well known 
to me, make cautionary Hints unnessary. You will please to issue 
your Orders to the commanding Officer of any County, for such Suc- 
cour to any other Part, as you may deem expedient, sending a copy of 
this Letter, which will be received as an Order to insure obedience 
to your's. 

Mr Corker informs me that the Burnt Fort on Settilla is evacuated; 
enquire into this, and if so, send an Order to Captn Burnet, who com- 
mands the main Company of Glynn, to keep a Scout out on this Side, 
and to the Commg Officer of Camden, to keep another Scout out on 
the other Side Settilla, until a Governor is appointed who may issue 
such Orders as the Emergency of Affairs may require. I think this 
necessary, as there is not time for the present chief Magistrate to give 
any Order on the Subject; should Mr Corker be apprehensive, I also 
request an Escort may be furnished from St. Saviller to the Burnt 
Fort by Captain Burnet, and the remainder of the rout to St. Mary's 
by the Camden Militia and so also on the return of the Post. 

I know, my Dr Colonel, the strong reasons which may be alledged 
by our Fellow Citizens against performing Duty, but we ought to re- 
member, that, there is a vast Difference in doing it to preserve our- 
selves, our dear families, and properties, and performing it to serve 
an ungrateful Government. 

Col Armstrong has mentioned to me, that Major Freeman has con- 
sented to pay the Spies fully. Is this so or not? do let me know, as 
I am not on very intimate terms with him. I also wish to hear from 
you on every Occasion, that I may be prepared to give you succour 
whilst at the Legislature. 

I am &C&C 
Lt Col. Stewart 

Commg 1st Brigade 
Georgia Militia 

Sm Altho' I am no longer a Senator of the United States, relying on 
the benevolence of your character, I hope to be pardoned for taking 
up a moment of your time, on a matter of some public importance. 

I am one of the commissioners appointed by this State, to attend, 
on its behalf, the treaty for the extinguishment of the Indian claims 

92 



to the lands over the Oconee, and, hope to be pardoned, when I re- 
quest to know from you whether or not this treaty will be held in 
May. The anxiety of all classes of people for this treaty, and a cession 
of the lands is great. The banks of the Oconee, as I am well informed, 
are crowded with persons who have emigrated to this from the other 
States, and, there is room for apprehension, should the treaty be long 
delayed, that settlements will be made in force on the other side that 
river. The Legislature just risen of this State, has taken every pru- 
dent step to prevent encroachment on the ground in question, and also 
to prevent hostilities on the Indians; you have by this time I suppose 
received information of the steps taken with Harrison, and of his 
having been in custody of our Executive; the proceedings of his party 
met the unanimous detestation of the Legislature, and which I hope 
will have a good effect in future. A cession on the part of the Indians 
will be desirable as well on their as our accounts. I am convinced it 
will heal all breaches, and without it I fear trouble to them, and us, 
and expense to the United States; the numbers arrived, and arriving 
here I think authorise an apprehension that a settlement will take 
place at any rate, should the cession be not made, and even supposing 
the settlers should be driven back by the arm of the Union, the ex- 
pense would be much greater to the United States, than their expend- 
ing something extraordinary to procure the lands, exclusive of what 
would be of still greater consequence, perhaps the loss of many lives, 
and the begetting of ill blood between the two Governments, matters 
much to be avoided by both. I am confident that no settlement of this 
improper kind will be countenanced by the government of this State, 
but the necessity of the Union's proceeding to extremes, and the loss 
of relatives may produce the seeds of discord between them. I am 
aware Sir that I am not the proper officer to give you this communi- 
cation, but knowing as I do the temper of the people, and that the 
President rejects no information which can possibly throw light on 
any subject, I have felt it my duty to offer the Sentiments herein 
contained for your and his consideration; if accepted I shall feel my- 
self happy and honored, if supposed not of weight, I shall content 
myself with having at least aimed to do my duty agreeably to my 
conception of the necessity there is for the Treaty, and further for 
the procuring the cession of the lands applied for by this State, in or- 
der to preserve peace between our Citizens, and the Creek Indians, and 
promote harmony between the General Government and the Govern- 
ment of this State. 

I have learnt that General Glasskock, the Marshal of this District, 
is about to, or has resign'd. I have known Oliver Bowen, brother of 
Governor Bowen of Rhode Island, ever sinc^ the commencement of the 
revolutionary war, he has served with honor both in the Continental 
line of the army and navy of this State, and is an honest man, and 

93 



a worthy citizen. I am informed he offers for the place. I believe he 
would give general satisfaction, and perform his duty. 
Again requesting to be pardoned for the liberty I have taken 

I am Sir 

your most obedt Servt 
Jas Jackson 
Savannah, Georgia 
March 12th. 1796 
The Secretary for the department of State of the United States 

Savannah March 28th 1796 
Sib The general order of the 17th. of March, reached me by the hands 
of the Adjutant General the 23d; and in obedience there to, I take the 
liberty of recommending Lieutenant John Vaughan for the command 
of the Burnt Fort station. He has already commanded at that post, and 
bears the character of a vigilant and active officer. I have made this 
recommendation on account of the disarrangement of the militia of 
Camden in which County the post lays, and the delay which would 
necessarily take place to make a proper inquiry into the ability of 
any officer recommended to me from thence. Mr Vaughan was com- 
missioned by Governor Mattthews but is not in the line. I have there- 
fore thought it my duty to notify you previously to giving him any 
order to recruit — he seems confident of his success however when com- 
missioned. 

I shall consult Col Stewart respecting the officer to command at 
Doctor's Town, and inform you immediately after I hear from him. 

I cannot well say what officers to recommend for Fords and Mer- 
cer's posts, but shall write General Morrison on the Subject, directing 
him to give your Excellency his sentiments as to the proper officers. 

I have to request your Excellency will be pleased to order me copies 
of the Augusta and Galphinton treaties, with such other papers as may 
tend to throw light on the subject of the approaching treaty with the 
Creeks. If your Excellency should have received official information 
whether the Treaty will or will not be held in May, I request to be 
notified of it. 

And am with every respect 
Your Excellency's Obedt Servt 
James Jackson 

Dear Col By the inclosure you will find that I am authorized to 
appoint an Officer to take charge of the Doctors Town station; can 
you recommend one who will accept it from the line of the Militia? 



94 



if not, one who you will be certain can recruit his Men; do give me 
an answer as soon as possible. 

& believe me to be 
sincerely Yours & 
Lt Col Stewart 

commg Lib County Militia 
& Commt 1st Brigade 

Savannah March 28th. 1796 
Sib I have just been favoured with your line of the 19th instant, 
but cannot inform you of the particulars you wish to be informed of; 
the best application for you to make to obtain them will be to the 
Executive. I was appointed a Commissioner against my will, and re- 
quested another election as soon as appointed, which Judge Taliaferro 
knows was refused me; it is therefore an office thrown per force on 
me, (if I may be allowed the expression) for I pronounce myself un- 
qualified for it, and nothing but the pressings of my Western friends, 
and their declarations of your capacity, should now induce me to serve. 
Censure is unavoidable act as we may, and from your Character, and 
my feelings, with the disposition of our Colleague Mr Sims, I am per- 
suaded that we shall undeservedly meet it. I applied at a late hour 
of the Session I acknowledge for instructions; but we were only ap- 
pointed at a late day, and to have brought forth instructions to my- 
self would not have looked well; when I applied, it was denied to have 
a committee, and I was told none were necessary. 

I have written the Governor requesting to have the necessary papers, 
Treaties &c. Should the Executive deem a metting [sici of the com- 
missioners necessary, I am ready to attend at Louisville to consult on 
the preparative steps. Indeed your observation appears to me extremely 
just, but our instructions must come from the Governor; provisions 
and a purchase of the necessary goods, should not be deferred to the 
last hour and then be purchased at an extravagant rate. This I have 
written to the Governor; the scarcity of provision is much against us. 

As to the application of the fund, I conceive also there we must 
wait for Executive orders; whether that department has or has not 
received official notice, whether the Treaty will or will not be held 
in May, or what provisions will be necessary on the part of the State, 
I am ignorant. 

As to the quantum of land to be purchased, the Oconee act must 
be our guide, and I believe we shall do well, to obtain what is there 
intended with the Tallassee County. I believe we should both agree 
to purchase if the Indians were disposed to cede to the Flint river. 

You had better write to Governor Irvin [sic'] on this subject, for 
as yet I have not received a single line from him respecting it. I shall 

95 



also be happy, if you will inform me of the result of such Communica- 
tion. 

I am Sir 
Yr most obedt Servt 
James Jackson 

Savanah March 29th. 1796 
Sib I did myself the honor of writing to to [sic'i you yesterday, re- 
specting the general order of the 17 Instant, since which, I have re- 
ceived a line from Col. Hendricks relative to the expected Treaty. He 
appears to be, as I am, totally ignorant whether the treaty will or will 
not be in May. He desires me to inform him, if any distribution 
of the fund appropriated has taken place, such as what proportion 
for provision, what part for goods, and what for contingent expences. 
I have answered him that, as well on those heads, as on the necessity 
of a meeting, which he seems to wish we must your orders, that the 
first thing to know is whether the Treaty will be held. If you recollect, 
Governor, I early pressed you on the necessity of your knowing from 
the Agent of the Union, if the business would go on. The time is fast 
approaching, and if something be not shortly done, we shall be in con- 
fusion when the time arrives. The scarcity of provision is very much 
against us. Corn is selling currently here at a Dollar and one quarter 
per bushel, and no chance of falling. If the Treaty goes on, and you 
have received advice of the quantum necessary to be supplied by 
Georgia, a contractor would be wanted. Col. Hendricks perhaps would 
undertake the purchase of the goods; for my own part, I know little 
of such business, and was elected against my will, and requested the 
two branches to elect some one else. I can even now scarcely bring 
my mind to continue in the appointment. I foresee censure act as we 
may, and yet I am certain, we shall all have the interest of the State, 
and her Citizens in view, in every step we take. 

If I may be permitted to give your Excellency my opinion, it is that 
no time be lost in ascertaining the holding of the Treaty, and the 
amount of provision to be furnished by Georgia. 

Should your Excellency deem a meeting of the Commissioners requi- 
site, after those facts are ascertained, to consult on the necessary 
Steps, I should suppose Louisville will be most convenient to yourself 
and where I will attend on receiving your order. 

I am Sir Yr Excellys 
Obedt Servt. 
James Jackson 
His Excellency Govr. Irvin [sic] 

Savannah April 7th 1796 
Dear Governor You will by this I suppose have received an express 
from Major Habersham giving you information that the President has 

96 



ordered the Treaty to be held in May at Coleraine. The provisions are 
in the first place to be provided and payed for by the United States 
though it is declared that Georgia is to be at half the expence. This 
will save us much trouble and perhaps make a meeting of the Com- 
missioners at Louisville unnecessary. For my own part I can illy spare 
the time and if not actually necessary I should wish it avoided. If 
I could possibly think of any other person to fill the appointment I 
most assuredly should decline acting; if your Excellency could think 
of any one and would be so good as to inform me I should do so. At 
any rate I will have nothing to do with the public money; some agent 
should make the purchases for the State of the necessary goods for 
the treaty. It is possible Col. Hendricks may do this being acquainted 
with mercantile affairs. I know nothing of them. I hope that nothing 
I write will be construed into a repugnance to getting the Oconee 
fork lands, it is the first wish of my heart and I conceive it the great- 
est object of the State, but as I know myself not to be versed in Indian 
matters and that the least slip will be laid hold of to censure and that 
censure will all be directed against me to break me down in a future 
Legislature to answer Yazoo purposes, had I not better request your 
looking out for some one else and let me immediately know. I feel 
myself uneasy; every mistake in a law passed at Louisville is now 
imputed to me and every error of Simmon's Clerkes & every willful 
confusion which the Yazoo party threw in the way is laid at my door. 
If any thing turned up in the Treaty I fear they might injure me 
effectually and prevent my exertions in the next Assembly; do (Jov- 
ernor think of this and let me know; the time is now getting short. 

For God sake my dear Governor why are the tax laws delayed? the 
time of making returns as well as I recollect expires in May I believe 
the 1st. The party will throw every obstacle in the way of our revenue 
and we shall need it all. Watkins was never contented in filling the 
appropriation law with special appropriations and now they are send- 
ing the warrants here to take up the profits of the Negroe tax to pre- 
vent our getting the money. An executive order should issue prohibitg 
the Collectors from receivg anything but the specie or the profits of 
this source will be eat up & perhaps the treaty be injured; special war- 
rants indeed might be drawn for this purpose in favor of the agent 
appointed and those only to be receivable; something in the nature 
of the anticipation warrants of 1789, but grounded on the Oconee Act 
& treaty approp[riatio]n; no time should be lost on this head; an- 
other Ship is arrived with Slaves & more daily expected something 
must be done. 

Is there no procl[amatio]n yet about the Yazoo Act? has it never 
been published in the Augusta papers the Act at least should be pub- 
lished or it cannot be said to be promulgated; pardon me Govr for 
the liberties I take in writing you so freely but hearing the cries of 

97 



the party who have thrown every thing into confusion that the con- 
fusion lays with us I cannot forbear dropping you such hints as I 
think may be of service. The tax laws had better be sent express, if 
the first of May be the day of returns to be made; and a particular 
requisition be also made on the Justices of the Inferior Courts, to ap- 
point tax Officers where it has not been done. 

I beg to hear from you immediately on the subject of this letter; 
one sample objection strikes me against declining it is the Charge 
of wishing to defeat the Oconee object, which the Yazoo party may 
play off in the Western Country against me, but it appears to me this 
could be obviated, and would not be of so lasting an impression. I leave 
this to your determination. 

I am Dr Governor with the sincerest respect 

Sir 
Yours & 
James Jackson 

Savannah 10 OClock of Evg of the 
Day of the 14 April 1796. 
Sir Major Habersham has just informed me, that George Galphin 
leaves him with a line to you to morrow morning at 8 OClock. 

I suppose he carries to your Excellency the dispatch of Mr Seagrove 
to the Major relative to the treaty, ordered by the president, and 
which from the Communication the major has done me the honor to 
give me a view of, I find is yet doubtful as to time only. I[t] must 
be highly gratifying to your Excellency to find that notwithstanding 
the annulling law, the resolutions of the Legislature, under which au- 
thority you administer the Executive, have had their due weight with 
the United States; and that in addition to the former order by that 
power, a new one is now given to their agent to supply all the pro- 
visions in the first place; my prediction of this is that Georgia will 
never pay one shilling of this expence, and that it will never be ex- 
pected by the Union. 

Would it not be well to send a State express off to Barnard, request- 
ing him to give your Excellency any certain intelligence of a treaty, 
so that state preparations might be made in time (and to make prepa- 
rations before it were necessary would not do) so that we may not 
be placed in a disagreeable situation, from the necessary tho unavoid- 
able delay which must ensue, if the Indian notice is first given to the 
Agent Mr Seagrove, and formally sent from him to you, & from you 
to the Commissioners; before which latter notice, the Indians may 
have retired from the ground appointed for the Treaty. I have fre- 
quently lamented, not only in my letters to you Sir, but in my expres- 
sions to those I associate with; that I am appointed to an office against 
my will, & which I know my incapacity to execute. It is within the 

98 



recollection of every member of the two branches, that I requested an- 
other appointment; my only ambition was to retire to private-life. But 
Mr Watkins joined Judge Taliaferro, then President of the Senate, to 
prevent another election, and I now feel myself compelled to proceed 
in it. If your Excellency cannot place confidence in some, (& many 
there are), capable persons to undertake the trust, I shall pursue the 
desire of the State to the utmost of my poor ability. I doubt if the 
whole extent of boundary required to be extinguished by the Oconee 
law can be obtained; fe I doubt also, if the best possible bargain that 
can be made take place, if the event be not the occasion of malevolent 
attack, and what is further if the if the [sic] gaining over of the lands 
to be the consequence under the terms which the president has an- 
nounced, if the opposers of the Cession may not declare the Commissrs 
either ignorant of their trust or opposed from sinister motives, to the 
good of their country. 

To this censure I shall partially submit, if my poor abilities cannot 
be dispensed with. An Agent I think well acquainted with the neces- 
sary goods for a treaty will be wanted, (unless Colo. Hendricks will 
undertake this business), exclusive of the Secretary allowed the Com- 
missionrs. Should your Excellency be of this opinion, & I believe your 
Secretary knows it has been usual, I beg leave to mention Mr Willam 
Clarke a man well acquainted with mercantile & Indian affairs, their 
manners & customs and who may be vastly useful to the State, in per- 
suading the Indians to comply with the Cession, which must be your 
Excellencys, as I am sure it will be our first wish to accomplish. 

This Agent, if the name be an objection, may be nominated a Con- 
tractor for the Indian supplies, who besides procuring the articles, 
may negotiate or dispose of the Stock appropriated; & in whose favour, 
you may draw on the Tax collector here for the monies arising from 
the Negroe tax. A great clamour has been made against it, and now 
they are getting over the noise, they are searching for all the warrants 
on the Treasury, which were all except a very few to have been paid 
out of former taxes, & those few chiefly out of last Years tax; the 
leaving of the members to go home, & the inaccuracy of the engrossing 
clerks occasioned this mistake. 

I gave Colo. Hammond a list of papers to shew your Excellency, 
which I must have to make myself master of the business, & if you 
would honor with a line enclosing them, & give me your sentiments 
on the subjects here contained, & whether it will be necessary for the 
Commissrs to meet at Louisville previous to the Treaty. You will 
greatly oblige 

Your Excellencys 
Obedt Servant 
James Jackson 



99 



Monday April 18th. 1796* 
Sib I have just I have just received your Excellencys command to 
repair to Louisville on Friday next. The notice Is sudden, and the time 
too short to prepare myself for the Journey, so as to he present at the 
day appointed, but I will attend as soon as my domestic affairs will 
permit my absence, & I shall not delay one moment which can he 
spared. 

I was not without hopes, as the greatest difficulty the procuring pro- 
visions with the money of the State was avoided, and as the communi- 
cation of Mr Seagrove was not positive as to the disposition of the 
treat [y], that the necessity of a meeting might not have occurred. As 
it is so decided, I shall obey. 

I am Sir &c 

James Jackson 

Thursday Morng April 21st 1796 
Deab Sib There can be little doubt of the Treaty being held, but I am 
of opinion you had better not prepare the articles, so far as respects 
those not to be purchased here, until you hear from me, or the Gov- 
ernor, from Louisville. You can be preparing those which, without in- 
convenience to yourself, can be procured in Savannah. There can be 
little, or indeed no doubt, but we shall have to apply to you, but being 
myself an individual commissioner I must receive the sanction of 
others & the Governor, previously to my speaking determinedly. 

Should you however procure the articles even wanted from Charles- 
ton, you will not long want a market for them. The treaty will un- 
doubtedly be held in all this year, & the State would from interest pur- 
chase here if possible. 

Your's sincerely 
James Jackson 
Mr Bolton 

[The remainder of the letterbook is taken up with lists of "Writs & 
Processes" for the October term, 1782, through the March term, 1789, 
and the August term, 1792.] 



•This letter and the one following are out of place In the letterbook and are 
placed here for chronology. 

100 



"List of the members who were supposed would be opposed 
or who would advocate the Yazoo BilV* 



Good 
Montgomery — Woods 
Washington — Irvine 
Elbert — Barnet 
Wilkes — Taliaferro 
Ck)lumbia — McNeil 
Screven — Lanier 
Burke — Morrison 
Effingham — Dasher 
Chatham— Tattnall 
Liberty — Dunwoody 
Glynn — Burnet 
Hancock — Abercrombie 
Warren — Mitchel 
Oglethorpe — Pope 



Bad 


Dubious 


Greene — Gresham 


i' Tauiviin I 


Franklin — Carnesf 


xvichmondf 


Mcintosh — Mcintosh 




Camden — T King 




Richmond — Walton 




Bryan — Mann 







Good 


Bad 




Chatham 


4 





Oglethorpe 


Bryan 


1 


1 


Wilkes 


Liberty 


2 


1 


Warren 


Mcintosh 





2 


Columbia 


Glynn 
Camden 
Montgomery 
Washington 


1 

1 
2 


1 

2 
1 

1 


Richmond 
Burke 
Screven 
Effingham 


Hancock 


2 


1 




Greene 


1 


2 




Franklin 


1 


1 




Elbert 


1 


1 





Jood 


Bad 


2 





2 


1 


2 


1 


2 





3 




2 


1 


1 




29 


17 


17 





46 

toH^aVguai^lJ'^^ ^^^ included among those published in The Georgia HU- 
tNames with white line through them are crossed out in the manuscript. 



101 



INDEX 



ABERCROMBIB, Charles, expected vote 
on Yazoo, 101 

ADJUTANT General (Elholm, Augustus 
C. G.), 67, 68, 69 

AKIN. James, 58, 59-60 

AKIN, Mr., 77 

ALEXANDER, Capt., 3 

ALEXANDER, Col., 9 

ALEXANDER, James, supposed to have 
killed Grierson, 19-20, 21 

ALEXANDER, Mr., cruelly treated. 19- 
20. 

ALLISON. Henry, 1, 19, 23, 27 

ALTAMAHA (Alatamaha) River, 69, 70, 
73. 75 ; Indian depredations on, 44, 
45, 46 ; blockhouses, 72, 73 

APPROPRIATION Law, 97 

ARGYLE, post at, 72 

ARMS and Ammunition, shortage of 
guns, 42 ; swords sent to troops, 42 ; 
powder sent to troops, 44, 91 ; badly 
needed, 61, 62 ; supplied to Effingham, 
63 ; to be divided between counties, 
67 ; swords made at Augusta, 69 ; to 
be accounted for. 78 ; sent to Lib- 
erty troop, 78 ; men to help in ac- 
coutering, 78 ; shortages, 83 

ARMSTRONG, Capt., letter to, 85; men- 
tioned, 86 ; advice to, 86 

ARMSTRONG, Col., 92 

AUGUSTA, 7, 10, 12, 15, 19-20. 21, 22, 
23, 25. 26, 79 ; British at, 10 ; action 
at, 39 ; swords made at, 69 ; treaty, 94 

BAILLIE, Robert Carnibe, killed, 13 

BAKER. , 17 

BAKER, Col. James, refuses to return 
flag, 12 ; enters Sunbury in triumph, 
12-13 ; commands near Augusta, 19, 
21 ; leads party to Georgia, 39 

BALL, Capt., killed in action, 17 

BARCLAY, Commodore, Savannah ex- 
pedition, 8, 11-12, 37 

BARNARD, Timothy, 51, 58, 59, 60, 88, 
91, 98 

BARNET, William, expected vote on 
Yazoo, 101 

BARNWELL, Col., 25 

BARTON, Capt., 9 

BEAL, Capt., 9 

BEARDS Bluff. 47, 48, 57, 62, 63, 64, 



67, 69, 70. 72, 73, 75, 78, 81, 90 
BECKAM, Capt., 3, 4 
BELCHERS Mill Creek, 72 

BENNETT'S Fort, 42, 55, 56, 63, 65 

BERWICK'S Iron Works, 16-17 

BETHESDA, affair at, 28-30 

BBVAN, Joseph Vallance, papers men- 
tioned, 8n 

BINGHAM, Mr., 35 

BIRD, Israel, to furnish provisions, 43 ; 
letter to, 43-44 

BIRD'S Post, 43 

BIRD'S Mill Post, 72 

BLACKSTOCKS, action at, 18, 38 

BLAND'S Dragoons, 15 

BLOCKHOUSES, specifications for, 70 

BLOGG, William, 30 

BLOUNT, Stephen, 27 

BLOUNT (Blunt), William, 91 

BOARD of Commissioners of Trade, 14 

BOLTON, Mr., letter to, 100 

BOURQUIN, Maj., 9 

BOWEN, Oliver, attacks British vessels, 
11, 12, 37 ; gallies frequently engaged, 
14 ; captures powder sent to Bunker 
Hill, 14 ; recommended for marshall's 
post, 93-94 

BOWEN, Jabez (Governor of Rhode 
Island), brother of Oliver Bowen, 93 

BOWES, Charity, charges against, 4 

BREWTON Hill, defense of urged, 8-9 

BRITISH, evacuate Savannah, 26 ; dra- 
goons, 2-3, 18, 24, 26, 39; fleet at 
Tybee, 26 ; forces turned back, 17 ; 
privateer, 62 

BROWN, Col., 2, 9, 17, 19, 40 

BROWN. Malcomb, 15 

BROWNE (Brown), Thomas, barbarity 
at Augusta, 17, 20 

BROWN'S Fort, 21 

BROWNSON, Capt., 73 

BROWNSON, Nathan, letter to, 2-3 ; let- 
ter from Gen. Greene, 24 ; elected gov- 
ernor, 23 ; notifies Jackson of election 
as governor, 31-32 

BRYAN, Capt., 37 

BRYAN, Jonathan, 11 

BRYAN, William, Sr., at defense of Sa- 
vannah, 12 

BRYAN County, powder sent troops, 91 ; 
expected vote on Yazoo. 101 



102 



BUGG, Sherwood, taken prisoner, 3, 24 ; 

mentioned, 9 ; in Jackson's legion, 27 
BULL, Col., 11 
BULLAHOB (Privateer), 14 
BULLOCH, Archibald, 37 
BUNKER Hill, powder from Savannah 

used at, 14 
BURKE County, action at jail, 9, 10 ; 

action in, 15 ; to be inspected, 67, 69, 

71 ; some Inhabitants leave, 71-72 ; 
posts to be established, 71-72 ; militia, 

72 ; expected vote on Yazoo, 101 
BURNEJT, John, expected vote on Yazoo, 

101 

BURNET, Moses, 5-7, 55, 57, 86, 90, 
91, 92 

BURNT Fort, evacuated, 92 ; command 
recommended, 94 

BURR, Aaron, mentioned in Yazoo spec- 
ulation, 35 

BUTLER, Pierce, 36 

BUTLER'S House, action at, 24 

BUTLER'S Post, 3, 13 

CAMDEN County, posts in, 72 ; people 

starving, 78 : distracted state, 84 ; 

militia, 48, 73, 74, 75, 90, 92, 94; 

mutiny in, 83 ; court of inquiry held, 

84 ; expected vote on Yazoo, 101 
CAMDEN, S. C, mentioned, 23, 24 
CAMPBELL, Col., 24 
CANDLER, Col., 9, 17 
CANOOCHIE River, 71, 72, 75, 88 
CARNBS, Mr., 48 
CARNES, Thomas Peter, expected vote 

on Yazoo, 101 
CARNEYS Cowpen, 57, 86-87 ; fort 

burned. 90, 91 
CARPENTER, Mr., 58 
CARR, Lt. Col., letter to, 83 
CARR, Patrick, at Ogeechee ferry, 2, 23 ; 

exploits, 9 ; in action, 18 ; with Jack- 
son at Butler's, 24, 39 
CASHEN. Mr., store robbed by Indians, 

46-47 
CATAWBA, mentioned, 38 
CENSIER, Mr., 62 
CHARLTON, Thomas Usher Pulaski, his 

Life of Jackson mentioned, 8n 
CHARLESTON (Charles Town), S. C, 

enemy to leave, 6 ; militia, 13, 15 ; 

capture of mentioned, 20 ; mentioned, 

22, 26, 100 
CHATHAM County, mentioned, 42, 54; 

militia, 52, 56, 59, 62, 63, 69, 73, 74, 

76 ; one post in, 72 ; expected vote on 

Yazoo, 101 



CHEBHAW Indians, See Indians 

CHEROKEE Indians, See Indians 

CLANCY, James, 4 

CLARK (Clarke), Elijah, cited, 9; vigil- 
ance against Tories, 10 ; stand In 
Wilkes county, 15-16 ; in action, 17 ; 
captures Williamson, 18 ; routed, 
wounded, 18-19 ; mentioned, 21 ; Jack- 
son goes to his aid, 22 ; rewarded by 
state, 24-25 ; endorses Jackson's notes 
on Ramsay, 27-28 ; joined by Jackson, 
38 ; resumes command at Augusta, 
39 ; letter mentioned, 43 ; suggested 
to lead party against Indians, 52 ; 
leads party of volunteers against In- 
dians, 69 ; ability praised, 72 ; his set- 
tling over Oconee a cause of Indian 
resentment, 85, 86 

CLARK, Mrs. Elijah, cruelly treated, 20 

CLARKE, Sgt., 65 

CLARKE William, 99 

CLAY, Joseph, lauded by Jackson, 22-23 

CLAY, Mrs. Joseph, conduct praised, 
22-23 

CLAY, Lt., 64, 69, 70 

CLAYTON, Philip, resolutions of im- 
peachment against, 30-31 , 

CLINTON, Sir Henry, 15, 16 

COCHRANS Post, 55 

COCKSPUR Island, fort inspected, 87 

COLERAINE, 46, 52, 55, 56, 60, 67, 81, 
84 ; trouble with troops at, 83, 84 ; 
treaty to held at, 97 

COLUMBIA County, expected vote on 
Yazoo, 101 

CONES Post, 43 

CONTINENTAL Contractor, 56, 57, 60, 
61, 67, 68, 74, 78, 80, 82 

COOKE, Mr., 50, 51, 53 

CONFISCATION and Banishment, act 
passed, 27 

CORKER, Mr., 92 

CORNWALLIS, Lord, mentioned, 6, 18; 
unsuccessful effort to capture Howley, 
15 ; surprised by Jackson, 38 

COTTON, article effecting in British 
treaty, 36 

COUPER, John, 74-75 

COWAN, William, court martial, 4 

COWETA Town, 47, 51 

COWPENS, S. C, 38 

COX (Coxe), Mr., 61, 62 

COXE'S Settlement, 63 

CREEK Indians, See Indians 

CROFTS, Mr., 79 

CRUGER, Col. John Harris, 17 



103 



CUNNINGHAM, Maj., 9, 18 
CUSSBTAHS, See Indiana 

DARTMOUTH, Lord, 29 

DASHER, John Martin, expected TOte 
on Yazoo. 101 

DA VIES, Myrick, 16 

DAVIS, David, disclosed plot against 
Jackson, rewarded, 23 

DAWSON, Capt., 84 

DAY, Maj., 44 

DELEGAI/S Plantation, scene of last 
action in Georgia, 26 

DEMERE, Maj., at defense of Savan- 
nah, 12 

DICKINSON, Lt., 60 

DOCTOR'S Creek, 75. 76, 79. 81, 82 

DOCTOR'S Town, 85, 86, 91, 94 

DOOLY, John, 10 

DORCHESTER, S. C, 38 

DOWNS. Col., 16 

DUANE, Mr., 34 

DUNLAP, Maj., 16 

DINN, Col., 9. 21 

DUNWODY, James, expected vote on 
Yazoo, 101 

DUNWOODIB, Dr., 42 

EBENEZER, 2, 5, 25, 40 

EFFINGHAM County, 46, 48, 54, 61, 
66 ; orders to commanding officer, 62- 
63 ; defenses, 63 ; ammunition sup- 
plied, 63 ; militia, 76, 80 ; posts in, 
67, 69, 71-72 ; expected vote on Yazoo, 
101 

BIMBECK, George, 59, 62 

ELBERT, Samuel, mentioned, 9, 10, 26, 
38 ; captures Hinchinbroke, 14 

ELBERT County, expected vote on 
Yazoo. 101 

FEDERAL Commandant, 48, 50, 68, 81 
FENWICK, Mr., 12 
FERGUSON (Furguson), Maj., 16 
FERGUSON, Mr., 6 

FEW, , 10 

FEW, Benjamin, 9 

FEW, William, 9 

FIELD, Capt., 3 

FILES, Stephen, 74, 79, 82 

FILES, Couper & Mulryne, 74 

FLEMING, Mr., killed by Indians, 46 

FLINT River, 95 

FLORIDA, banditti, 8; expedition, 26; 

mentioned, 76 
FORDS Post, 94 
FORTS, See names of forta 

104 



FOX, Miss, 4 

FRANCE, treaty with mentioned, 62 

FRANKLIN County, expected vote on 

Yazoo, 101 
FREEMAN, Maj., 92 
FRENCH Troops, marching southward, 

5 
GAITHER, Henry. 48, 68, 86 

GALPHIN, , plundering in Florida, 

67 
GALPHIN, John, suspected of stirring 

up Indians, 53 
GALPHIN, George, 98 
GALPHIN Fort, 19 
GALPHINTON, treaty to be held at, 7, 

94 
GARVIN, Mr., 56, 77, 78 
GEORGIA, General Assembly grants 
home to Jackson, 7 ; president pro- 
tected by enemy, 10 ; Assembly neg- 
lects American cause after fall of Sa- 
vannah, 10 ; suffers much from war, 
12 ; finances, 14 ; government con- 
ducted by committee, 14 ; Continental 
Line, 19. 26 ; inhabitants cruelly treat- 
ed, 20 ; in hands of British, 20 ; consti- 
tution, 32 ; to bear half of expense of 
Indian treaty, 97, 98 
GEORGIA Legion, See Jackson's Legion 
GEORGIA Militia, number in service in 
Revolution, 8 ; bravery of, 11, 13, 17 ; 
in severe action, 16 ; hardships, 19, 
20 ; gallantry not mentioned in oflti- 
clal letters, 21 ; orders concerning 
meeting, 42-43 aid asked by federal 
officer, 48, 50 ; new draft expected, 
52; reelassing necessary, 59: com- 
mand explained, 65-66 
GIBBONS, Mr., 5 
GIBBONS, Thomas, 29, 30 
GILES, Maj., 38 
GIRARDEAU, Lt., 82 
GIRARDEAU, Mr., 58, 72 
GIRARDEAUS Station, 55, 69 
GLASCOCK, Thomas, 93 
GLYNN County, letter to commanding 
officer, 49 ; situation in, 50-51 ; block- 
houses for, 55-56 ; orders sent com- 
manding officer, 57 ; ammunition for, 
59; posts in, 72; militia, 74. 86, 90, 
92 ; field officers nominated, 84 ; ex- 
pected vote on Yazoo, 101 
GOLDSMITH, Capt., 39 
GOOSE Ponds, 88 
GRANT, Capt., killed, 2 
GRANT, Maj., attack on Savanaah. 11- 
12 



GREEN. Lt. William, 39 
GREENE, Nathanael, mentioned, 1, 8 ; 
commisslonB JackBon to raise legion, 

21, 39 ; orders Jackson to join him. 

22, 25, 38 ; estolls Jackson, 24, 38 ; 
rewarded by Georgia, 27 

GREENE County, expected vote on 
Yazoo, 101 

GREEK, Capt. William, in action at 

Butlers, 24 
GRESHAM, Davis, expected vote on 

Yazoo, 101 
GRIERSON, Col., cruelty, 20; killed, 

20-21 
GRIERSON'S Fort, battery erected at, 

21 ; storm on, 39 
GUNN, James, investigates Clayton, 31 ; 

part in Yazoo speculation, 34-37 ; 

letter to, 54, 55, 56 ; mentioned, 64 ; 

clarification of his command, 65-66, 70 
GUNS, See Arms and Ammunition 

HABERSHAM, James, 25-26, 29 
HABERSHAM, John, 25, 26-27, 48, 50, 

58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 67, 68, 69, 70, 

78. 82. 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 96, 98 
HABERSHAM, Joseph, 12, 14, 64 
HAMILTON, Thomas, 12, 27 
HAMMOND, Abner, 48, 84 
HAMMOND, LeRoy, 10, 19-20, 21, 39 
HAMMOND, Samuel, 9, 20, 21, 39, 65- 

66, 75, 76, 77, 82, 83, 99 
HANCOCK County, expected vote on 

Yazoo, 101 
HANDLEY, Col., 54 
HANDLEY, George, 7, 12 
HARDENBROOK, Lt., killed in action, 

24 
HARDY, Capt., captures Hinchinbroke, 

14 
HARRIS, Col., 12 
HARRISON, Benjamin, 93 
HARRISON, Capt., 88, 89 
HARRY, Maj., 10 
HARVEY, Lt. Benjamin, 3, 27 
HAWKINS, Benjamin. 27 
HAWKINS, Lt, 10-11 
HEARD, Stephen, 16 
HENDRICKS, Col., 96, 97, 99 
HENRY, Patrick, leader of Virginia 

Yazoo Company, 34 
HERBERTS Post, 10 
HERON, Mr., 63 
HICKS' Fort, 55, 65 

HILL, , 29 

HILLARY, Lt., 19 



HINCHINBROKE, capture of, 14 

HOUSTOUN. Sir George, 28-29; daugh- 
ter's death mentioned, 30 

HOUSTOUN, John, 14, 44, 45, 46, 47, 
50, 53, 54 

HOWE, Lt., 19 

HOWE, Gen. Robert, 8, 9, 26 

HOWLEY, Richard, 15, 16, 38 

HUGER, Maj., killed, 12 

HUGER, Gen Isaac, at siege of Savan- 
nah, 14 

HUNTER, Mr., given command of Cole- 
raine troop, 84 

HUNTINGTON, Countess of, inherits 
Bethesda from Whitefield, 28 ; death 
mentioned, 29 

HUTCHINSON'S Island, 11 

INDIANS. Creek treaty to be held, 7, 
100 ; on way to Savannah, 25 ; trou- 
bles with, 44-100 ; some troubles in- 
cited by white people, 46 ; war with 
Creeks feared, 46, 47, 49, 58, 61, 64, 
67, 75, 77, 85 ; Cherokee Nation, 51 ; 
plan by Jackson to stop them, 51-52 ; 
talks sent to, 52-53 ; communications 
from Creek Nation, 69 ; some killed 
at St. Marys, 77 ; affair of the pris- 
oners, 78, 81 ; Cussetahs, 81, U. S. 
treaty with northern Indians, 87 ; 
Cheehaws reported out to recapture 
Negroes, 88 ; false report about. 89 ; 
hostilities feared, 91 

INMAN, Joshua, 9 

INMAN, Shedrac, killed in action, 17 

IRWIN, Capt., cited. 9 

IRWIN, Jared, cited, 9 ; mentioned, 59, 
60, 87, 88 ; letter to, 94, 96-100 ; ex- 
pected vote on Yazoo, 101 

JACKSON, James, to receive keys to 
Savannah, 7, 26, 40 ; notes on Bam- 
say, 8-28; at defense of Savannah, 12; 
appointed commissioner for Indian 
treaty, 17, 95 ; granted home for serv- 
ices, 17, 27; captures horses, 18; 
mentioned, 17, 18 ; aide to Gen. Pick- 
ens, 19 ; rallies militia, 19-20 ; raises 
legion, 21 ; commissioned Lt. Col., 21 ; 
raises militia in S. C, 21, 39 ; 
joins Greene, 22 ; in command at Au- 
gusta, 22-23 ; action at Ogeechee 
Ferry, 23 ; at Butler's house, 24 ; 
joins Wayne, 25 ; destroys provisions 
on Gov. Wright's plantation, 25, 40 ; 
skirmish at Little Ogeechee bridge, 
25-26 ; in last action in Georgia, 26 ; 



105 



elected governor of Georgia. 31-32 ; 
letter from Secretary of War, 32; 
petitions for pay for military serv- 
ioes, 32-33 ; sketch of Yazoo specula- 
tion, 33-37 ; elected to Georgia sen- 
ate, 37 ; autobiographical sketch, 37- 
41 ; military career, 37-40 ; duel with 
Wells, 38; reported killed, 38; gal- 
lantry at Augusta, 39 ; becomes law- 
yer, 40 ; appointed Brigadier, 40 ; 
marriage, 40 ; refuses office of gov- 
ernor, 40 ; serves in legislature, 40 ; 
appointed Grand Master Georgia Ma- 
sons, 40 ; elected to House of Repre- 
sentatives, 40 ; plan to stop Indians, 
51-52 ; explains defense measures, 64 ; 
goes to Effingham and Burke, 69 ; 
plan for attacking Indians, 77 ; plan 
for settling Ocmulgee region, 77 ; 
arms troops by own efforts in revolu- 
tion, 78 ; to go to Augusta, 81 ; to 
attend council of war, 83 ; thoughts 
on Oconee claims, 93 ; to attend In- 
dian treaty, 92-93, 95. 97, 99, 100; 
questions on treaty, 95, 96, 97, 98-99 ; 
apprehensive of censure, 97, 99 

JACKSON, Mrs. James, mentioned, 7 

JACKSON'S Legion, 2, 8, 10, 25; de- 
scription, 21-22 ; revolt plotted, 23 ; 
officers, 27 ; raised, 39 

JAMEISON, Col., 15 

JARVIS, , 7 

JAY, John, 36 

JOHNSON, Capt.. surrenders, 23 

JOHNSON, John, conduct at Bethesda, 
29-30 

JOHNSTON, Mr., 75, 76 

JOHNSTON, William, elected captain, 
53 ; wants another appointment, 70 ; 
letter to, 73 ; to demand release of 
Indian prisoners, 81 

JONES, Capt., 85, 86, 89 

JONES, Dr., 64 

JONES, Drury, 72 

JONES, James, applies to raise com- 
pany of horse, 61, 62 

JONES, John, wounded, 9; killed, 13 

JONES, Lt., 43, 44, 68 

KKEVES, Mr., 30 

KENDRICK, Jacob, 55 

KING, John, 47, 48, 49 

KING, Mr., 52, 72 

KING, Thomas ; mentioned as possible 
officer, 48 ; elected captain, 53 ; ex- 
pected vote on Yazoo, 101 

KINNARD, , 88 

106 



KITCHEN, Benjamin, 87 
KNOX, Gen. Henry, 68, 78 

LANGWORTHY, Edward, 8n 

LANIER, Clement, expected vote on 
Yazoo, 101 

LANIERS Post, 43 

LECONTES Station, 55, 65, 69, 73 

LEE, Col. Henry,, 19, 20, 21, 39 

LEWIS Family, mentioned, 9 

LEWIS'S Station, 72 

LIBERTY County, 48, 51, 53, 54, 55, 
63, 66, 73, 74, 75; Indian troubles 
in. 45, 46, 61, 62, 63, 67; blockhouses 
for, 55-66 ; militia, 58, 90 ; troop, 64, 
65, 68, 78 ; trouble in, 69 ; more posts 
needed, C9 ; measures for defense, 70 ; 
posts in, 72 ; report of Negro trouble, 
79 ; Indians expected, 88 ; report on 
Indians false, 89 ; expected vote on 
Yazoo, 101 

LITTLE Ogeechee, skirmish at bridge, 
26 

LIMBERT. Mr., 49 

LINCOLN, Gen. Benjamin, 9, 11, 14 

LINDSAY, Maj., mentioned, 9 ; wounded, 
barbarously treated, 19 

LISLE. Col., 17 

LONG Bluff, 47, 48, 51, 54, 55 

LONG Cane, 18, 38 

LOUISVILLE, Ga.. 92, 95, 97, 99. 100 

LLOYD, Edward, lost arm at siege of 
Savannah, 13 

LOYALISTS, formed into a corps, 26; 
repaid by British government for 
losses, 27 

LUCAS, John, honored for bravery, 13- 

14 
LYON, Sgt., 78 

LYONS, Daniel, 53 
LYONS, John, 3, 4, 9, 27 

MCARTHUR, Maj., captured by Jack- 
son, 19, 38 

MCBEAN Swamp, 10 

MCCOLLOUGH. Jacob, 4 

MCDONALD, Britton, 80 

MCGEE, Hugh, 9 

MCGILLIS, Mr., 84 

MCGIRT, Daniel, 11, 15 

MCINTOSH, John, expected vote on 
Yazoo, 101 

MCINTOSH, Col. John, 10, 19 

MCINTOSH, Lachlan, mentioned, 6, 14, 
47 ; attack on mentioned, 9 ; com- 
mands at defense of Savannah, 12 ; 
gallantry at Savannah, 13 ; inerimi- 



nating letter about sent to Congress ; 
captured at Charleston, 14-15 

MCINTOSH, William, 46, 47 

MCINTOSH County, Indians expected, 
88 ; militia, 88, 90 ; expected vote on 
Yazoo, 101 

MACKALL, Leonard Leopold, mention- 
ed, 8n 

MCKAY, , 7 

MCKAY, Capt., 24 

MCKAY, Col., 2-3, 17, 23 

MCNEIL, Col., 9 

MCNEIL, James, expected vote on Ya- 
zoo, 101 

MAITLAND, Capt.. 14 

MAITLAND, CoL John, 11 

MALLER, Capt., attacks Twiggs, kiUed, 
13 

MANN, Luke, expected vote on Yazoo, 
101 , 

MALMBDY, Col., 12; 

MARBURY, Capt., 3 

MARBURY, CoL, 14 

MARION, Francis, 19 

MARTIN, John, to call Assembly, 5; 
elected governor, 24 ; talk to Indians, 
25 ; mentioned 26 

MASONS, Jackson, appointed Grand 
Master in Georgia, 40 

MATHEWS, George, signs Yazoo act, 
35 ; letter to, 85, 86-87, 89-90 ; men- 
tioned, 88, 91, 94 

MAXWELL, Col., letter to, 42 

MAXWELL, Mrs., mentioned, 42 

MAXWELL, William, 65 

MAY, John, court martial, 3-4 

MAYBANK, A., Jr., appointed 2d Lt., 
58 

MEASLE'S Ferry, 72 

MERCERS Post, 94 

MERIWETHER, Capt., 83 

MIDWAY, mentioned, 12, 57; one of 
richest settlements in state, 87 

MILLAR, Nicholas, 27 

MILLIGAN, John, 47, 51. 54, 55 

MILLIGAN'S Station, 89 

MILLS, Stephen, 72 

MITCHELL, Henry, 30-31 ; expected 
vote on Yazoo, 101 

MITCHELL, Maj., 68 

MOFFAT, Mr., killed by Indians, 46 

MONTAIGUT, Mr., 62 

MONTFORT, Robert, 62 

MONTGOMERY County, steps for pro- 
tection, 88-89 ; powder sent troops, 
91 ; expected vote on Yazoo, 101 

MOORE, Maj., killed in action, 25 

107 



MOREL, John, 12, 29 
MORGAN, Daniel, 19, 38 

MORRELL, J , 70 

MORRIS, Mr., 35 

MORRISON, John, 19, 23, 27, 66, 67, 

68, 71, 76, 87, 88-89, 94 ; expected vote 

on Yazoo, 101 
MOULTRIE, William, 38 
MOUNTAIN Men, conspicuous bravery, 

17 
MUNRO'S Fort, 65, 68 

NAIRNB, Lord, 17 

NEGROES, carried to South CaroUna, 
12 ; report of trouble in Liberty Coun- 
ty, 79 ; kill Dr. St. John, 81 ; Indians 
to recapture, 88 ; fears of uprising, 
91 ; tax, 97, 99 

NBTHERCLIFT, , 30 

NEW York, 26; treaty, 77 

NICHBL (Nichels), Maj., 72, 79 

NICHOL, Lt., 81 

NICHOLSON, Mr., 34 

NINETY-SIX, S. C, 1, 16, 17, 18, 22 

NORTH Carolina, many from Georgia 
refugee there, 20 ; militia, 51 

NORTH Newport, 57 

OCMULGEE, river, 47 ; Jackson's plan 

for settling, 77 
OCONEE, river, 47, 51, 59, 74, 93; 

Clark's settlement. 85. 86 ; treaty to 

be held on Indian claims, 92-93 ; act, 

95, 97, 99 ; lands, 97 
OGEECHEE, river, 2-3, 39, 47, 64, 71, 

72, 73, 88; ferry, 23, 74 
OGLETHORPB County, expected vote 

on Yazoo, 101 
OHOOPEE River, 61, 72 
OSWALD, Mr., 76 
OSWALD'S BluflE, 72, 73, 75 

PARIS, Mr., 15 
PARKER, CoL, 15 

PARRYMORB, , 47 

PATRIOTS, many lost fortunes in war, 

27 
PENDLETON, Judge, 34 

PERKINS, , 68 

PERRY, Lt., 19 

PETERS, Soloman, court martial, 4 

PHILADELPHIA, 16 

PICKENS, Andrew, 1, 10, 15, 16, 19. 

20, 21, 38, 39, 51, 52 
PONDS, The, 1 
POPE, Burwell. expected vote on Yaxoo 

101 



PORT au Prince, refngees prevented 

from entering state, 32 
POWELL, Josiah, 17 
PRAY, Joseph, 14, 68 
PRESIDENT of U. S., 75, 86, 96-97, 98 
PREVOST, Augustin, 12. 37 
PRICE, Charies, killed, 13 
PRIVATEER, first one in revolution 

fitted out in Georgia, 14 
PURRYSBURG, S. C, 38 

QUEBEC (British Frigate), in Savan- 
nah river, 87 

RAINES, Robert, 30-31 

RAINS, Capt.. letter to, 44 

RAINS, Mrs., 3 

RAMSAY, David, Jackson's notes on his 
history of the revolution, 8-28 

RAWDON, Lord, 1, 29, 39 

REID'S Bluff, 55, 57 

RICHARDSON'S Post, 72 

RICHMOND County, expected vote on 
Yazoo. 101 

ROBERTS, Col., 12 

ROBERTSON, William, letter to Jack- 
son, 32 

ROCK Landing, 48, 62 

ROGERS, , killed in action, 18 

ROSS, , 42 

RUDOLPH, Capt, 21 

RUTLEDGE. , 6 

ST. AUGUSTINE. 84 

ST. CLAIR, Gen., 6 

ST. JOHN, Dr., killed by Negroes, 81 

ST. MARYS, 48, 49, 50, 70, 92 ; In- 
dians killed at. 77 ; River, 46, 67, 84 

ST. SAVILLA, 54, 55, 57, 69, 74, 75, 83, 
92 ; Bluff, 47, 49-50, 51 

ST. TAMMANY Fort, 81 

SALISBURY, N. C, 38 

SALLETT, Robert, 9 

SAPELO, 69, 70, 73 

SATILLA River, 46, 49, 55 

SAUNDERS, Roger, 60, 61. 69. 75, 76, 
78 

SAUNDERS Fort, 65 

SAVANNAH, Brown at, 2 ; enemy to 
abandon, 6 ; Assembly to convene, 7 ; 
expedition under Barclay, 8 ; attack 
on, 8-9, 11-12 ; evacuated, 7. 26, 40 ; 
siege of, 13-14, 38 ; mentioned, 23, 25, 
100 ; troops being raised in, 62 

SAVANNAH River, 18, 19; British ves- 
sels in, 11 

SCOTT, , 85 



SCREVEN, James, at defense of Sa- 
vannah, 12 ; killed, 37 

SCREVEN County, powder sent troops, 
91 ; expected vote on Yazoo, 101 

SEAGROVE, Jamos, 46-47, 53, 54, 55, 58, 
67, 69, 77, 85, 86, 89, 90, 91, 98, 100; 
letters to, 50-52, 59-60, 60-61 

SEAGROVE, Robert. 46, 48, 52 

SECRETARY of State, letter to, 92-94 

SECRETARY of War, reports sent to, 
58, 60, 87, 88, 90 

SEVIER, John, 17, 51, 52 

SHARP, Hall, See Harry, Maj. 

SHELBY, Col., 17 

SHEPHERD, Capt., killed, 13 

SHEPHERD, John, 30-31 

SICILIUS, pen name of Jackson, 37 

SILVER Bluff, 53 

SIMMONS, James Mason, 97 

SIMS, Mr., 95 

SKIDAWAY Island, scene of last ac- 
tion in Georgia, 26 

SKINNER, Col., 6 

SLAVES, number lost to state, 26 

SMALL, Col., 6 

SMALL Pox. 25 

SMITH, Mr., killed in action, 25; Ne- 
groes stolen, 72 ; plantation attacked, 
60, 61 

SMITH (Continental Contractor), 56, 
57, 61, 62 

SMITH. Sgt., 86 

SMITHERS, Joshua T., 64, 65, 68, 82 

SOUTH Carolina, submission largely dne 
to Williamson's treachery, 15 ; desert- 
ed, 16 ; bravery of women, 16 ; mili- 
tia, 19 ; dragoons, 20 

SOUTH Newport, 57 

SPANISH, establish post on St. Marys, 
67 

SPENCE, Capt., 14 

STALLINGS, Ezekiel, 27 

STALLINGS, James, 3, 4, 9, 23. 24, 27 

STEDMAN, . 13 

STEVENS, William Bacon, 8n 

STEWART, Daniel, 45, 46-47, 48, 49, 52, 
55, 56, 57-58, 59. 61, 62, 64, 65, 68- 
69. 70, 73-74, 76, 77, 79, 81, 82, 85, 
87-88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94-95 

STIRK Maj., 19, 21, 39 

STIRK, Mr., 5 

STITH, Judge, 34 

STONE, Thomas, 14 

SUCHES, Alexander Moultrie. 34 

SULLIVAN. Capt., 34-35 

SUMTER, Thomas, 16, 17, 18, 19, 51 

SUNBURY, 12, 14, 75 



108 



SWANN, Caleb, 8 

SWOKDS, See Arms and Auimunition 

TALIAFERRO, Benjamiu, 95, 99 ; ex- 
pected vote on Yazoo, 101 

TALLY. John. 4 

TALLASSEE County, 77, 95 

TAKLETON, Barnastre, 18 

TATTNALL, .Tosiah, 7, 46, 65, 92 ; ex- 
pected vote on Yazoo, 101 

TAX Laws, questions on, 97-98 

TELFAIR, Edward, letters to, 44-45, 
46, 47-48, 52-53, 54, 55-56, 58-59, 61, 
62, 67, 69-70, 71-73, 74-75, 81, 83-84 

TELFAIR Port, 69 

TENNILLE, Lt, 19 

THIRD S. C. Regiment, at siege of Sa- 
vannah, 13 

THOMAS, Mr., 2 

THOMAS, Col., 9 

THOMAS, James, 72 

THOMAS, Roberds, killed, 35 

THOMPSON, Capt., 44 

THOMPSON, Maj., 74 

THROOP, Capt., letter to, 63 

TOMBERLIN, Mr., experience with In- 
dians, 71 

TORIES, 10, 18-19, 22, 25 

TORREN'S. 38 

TOWNSBND. Mr., 77, 78, 81 

TRAMMEL, Sgt., 44 

TRANS-OCONEE. See Oconee 

TREATY with Britain, 36-37 

TULIFINNY Bridge, 11 

TURTLE River, 86 

TWIGGS, John, letter to, 1 ; mentioned, 
2. 73, 87, 88 ; cited, 9 ; defeats Tories, 
10 ; attaclied, victorious, 12-13 ; leads 
expedition from Augusta, 15 ; assumes 
command, 17-18 ; narrowly escapes 
death, 20 ; appointed brigadier, 23 ; 
sends Jackson to Ogeechee ferry, 23 ; 
rewarded by state, 24-25 ; endorses 
Jackson's notes on Ramsay, 27-28 ; 
suggested to lead party against In- 
dians, 52 ; on the march, 69 ; march 
over Oconee, 72 ; ability praised, 72 

TWIGGS, Mrs. John, cruelly treated, 20 

TYBEE Island, British fleet at, 26 ; 
lighthouse inspected, 87 

U. S. Army, support hoped for, 87, 88 
UPTON, , taken prisoner by In- 
dians, 46 
URQUHART, Mr., 59 



VAN VOORHIES, Ensign, 



VAUGHAN, John, 94 
VIRGINIA Yazoo Company, 34 

WALTON, George, mentioned, 9 ; chosen 
governor, 14 ; expected vote on Yazoo, 
101 

WALDBURGER, Capt., 65, 68 

WARREN, Mr., 75, 76 

WAKKEN County, expected vote on 
Yazoo, 101 

WASHINGTON, Thomas, 27, 33 

WASHINGTON County, mentioned, 63, 
71 ; post in, 72 ; expected vote on 
Yazoo, 101 

WATKINS, Thomas, 97, 99 

WATSON, , killed with flag of 

truce, 20 

WATTS, Capt., 91 

WAY, Joseph, 58. 64-65, 67, 68, 70, 75, 
78, 79, 81, 82, 83 

WAYNE, Anthony, orders on taking Sa- 
vannah, 7 ; mentioned, 21, 22, 24 ; 
sends talks to Indians, 25 ; harrasses 
British, 25 ; orders Jackson to be first 
to re-enter Savannah, 26, 40 ; reward- 
ed by Georgia, 27 ; joined by Jackson, 
40 

WERE AT, Ann (Nancy), 5, 6 

WEREAT, John, letters to Jackson, 
4-6 ; on board of commissioners of 
trade, 14 ; heads committee conduct- 
ing state government, 14 

WEREAT, Mrs. John, mentioned, 6 

WEATHERFORD, Martin, 15 

WELLS, George, duel with Jackson, 
38 

WEST Indies, 26 

WESTERN Territory Militia, 51 

WHITEFIELD, George, established Be- 
thesda, 28 

WHITEHEAD, Capt., 42, 76 

WILKES, County, CoL Clarke in, 16; 
militia, 18, 19, 22 ; royalists defeat- 
ed, 21 ; expected vote on Yazoo, 101 

WILKINSON, John, 7 

WILLIAMS, , 17 

WILLIAMS, Abner, 48 

WILLIAMS, Parr, 80 

WILLIAMS, William, 57, 74, 75, 80-81, 
82, 83 

WILLIAMSBURG, Ga., 45, 47, 48, 49, 
50, 55 

WILLIAMSON, Andrew, treasonable con- 
duct, 15-16 ; captured, 18 

WILLIAMSON, Capt.. M , 42, 43 

WILLIAMSON, Col. Micajah, 9, 21, 39 



109 



WILLIAMSON. Mrs. Micajah, cruelly WYLLY, Thomas, 62-64 ; 79-80 

treated, 20 

WILSON, James, Yazoo speculation, 34 YADKIN, 38 

WINN, Mr., 45 YAZOO, sketch of speculation, 33-37 : 

WOOD, Dr., 75 Jackson opposed to settling, 77 ; act, 

WOOD, Solomon, expected vote on Ya- 97 ; party, 97, 98 ; votes expected, 

zoo, 101 101 

WRIGHT, Maj., 90, 91 YOUNG, Mary Charlotte, marriage to 

WRIGHT, Sir James, plantation plun- Jackson, 40 

dered, 25, 40 YOUNG, William, 40 



110